6/1/2016 1 Chapter 1 Chemical Bonding 1. Introduction 1.1 Atoms, Electrons and Orbitals 1.2 Ionic Bonds 1.3 Covalent Bonds 1.4 Double Bonds and Triple Bonds 1.5 Polar covalent Bonds and Electronegativity 1.6 Formal Charge 1.7 Structural Formulas of Organic molecules 1.8 Isomers and Isomerism 1.9 Resonance 1.10 The Shapes of Some Simple Molecules 1.11 Molecular Polarity 1.12 sp3Hybridization and the Bonding in Methane 1.13 Bonding in Ethane 1.14 sp2Hybridization and Bonding in Ethylene 1.15 spHybridization and Bonding in Acetylene What is Organic Chemistry and why should you study it? Organic Chemistry is the study of carboncompounds most also contains: H, O, N, P, S … C2H5OH, C6H12O6, C12H22O11 Why is Carbon special? Carbon atoms have the ability to bondtogether forming long chainsand rings.Proteins, DNA, Food, Clothes, Medicines are all organic compounds •Protons –positively charged –mass = 1.6726 X 10-27kg •Neutrons –neutral –mass = 1.6750 X 10-27kg •Electrons –negatively charged –mass = 9.1096 X 10-31kg + •–Atoms are composed of 1.1 Atoms, Electrons and Orbitals Atomic Number and Mass Number Atomic number (Z) = number of protons in nucleus This must also equal the number of electrons in neutral atom. Mass number (A) = sum of number of protons + neutrons in nucleus X Z A C 6 12 O 8 16 The electrons spend 90-95% of their time near the nucleus in regions of space called orbitals
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