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08a Endocrine System Terminology

08a Endocrine System Terminology - Endocrine System...

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Endocrine System Terminology Combining Forms Aden(o) Gland adren(o), adrenal(o) Adrenal gland andr(o) Male crin(o) To secrete dips(o) Thirst gluc(o), glyc(o) Sugar hormon(o) Hormone (an urging on) ket(o), keton(o) Ketone bodies pancreat(o) Pancreas thym(o) Thymus gland thyr(o), thyroid(o) Thyroid gland (shield) Anatomical Terminology Adrenal glands, suprarenal glands Located on the superior surface of each kidney; the adrenal cortex secretes steroid hormones, and the adrenal medulla secretes epinephrine and norepinephrine Steroid hormones, glucocorticoids, mineral corticosteroids, androgens Regulate carbohydrate metabolism and salt and water balance; have some effect on sexual characteristics Epinephrine, norepinephrine Affect sympathetic nervous system in stress response Ovaries Located on both sides of the uterus in the female pelvis, secreting estrogen and progesterone Estrogen, progesterone Responsible for the development of female secondary sex characteristics and regulation or reproduction Pancreas, islets of Langerhans Located behind the stomach in front of the first and second lumbar vertebrae, secreting insulin and glucagons Insulin, glucagons Regulate carbohydrate and sugar metabolism Parathyroid glands Two paired glands located on the posterior aspect of the thyroid gland in the neck, secreting parathyroid hormone (PTH) Parathyroid hormone, PTH Regulates calcium and phosphorus metabolism Pineal gland Located in the center of the brain, secreting melatonin and serotonin Melatonin Exact function unknown, affect onset of puberty Serotonin A neurotransmitter that serves as the precursor to melatonin Pituitary gland, hypophysis, anterior pituitary, adenohypophysis Located at the base of the brain; the anterior pituitary secrets thyroid-stimulating hormone, adrenocorticotrophic hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, melanocyte-stimulating hormone, growth hormone, and prolactin; the posterior pituitary releases antidiuretic hormone and oxytocin Thyroid-stimulating hormone, TSH Stimulates secretion from the thyroid Adrenocorticotrophic hormone, ACTH Stimulates secretion from the adrenal cortex Follicle-stimulating hormone, FSH Initiates growth of ovarian follicle; stimulates secretion of estrogen in females and sperm in males Luteinizing hormone, LH Cause ovulation; stimulates secretion of progesterone by corpus luteum; causes secretion of testosterone in testes Melanocyte-stimulating hormone, MSH Affects skin pigmentation Growth hormone, GH Influences growth
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