11a Gastrointestinal System Terminology

11a Gastrointestinal System Terminology - Gastrointestinal...

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Gastrointestinal Terminology Combining Forms abdomin(o)- / celi(o)- / lapar(o)- Abdomen an(o)- Anus appendic(o)- Appendix bil(i) / chol(e) Bile bucc(o)- Cheek cheil(o)- Lip colo(o)- / colon(o)- Colon cyst(o)- Bladder or sac dent(i) Teeth doch(o)- Duct duoden(o)- Duodenum enter(o)- Small intenstine esophag(o)- Esophagus gastr(o)- Stomach gingiv(o)- Gum gloss(o)- / lingu(o)- Tongue hepat(o)- / hepatic(o)- Liver herni(o)- Hernia ile(o)- Ileum inguin(o)- Groin jejun(o)- Jejunum (empty) lith(o)- Stone or(o)- / stomat(o)- Mouth pancreat(o)- Pancreas peritone(o)- Peritoneum phag(o)- Eat or swallow proct(o)- Anus or rectum pylor(o)- Pylorus (gatekeeper) rect(o)- Rectum sial(o)- Saliva sigmoid(o)- Sigmoid colon steat(o)- Fat -emesis Vomiting Anatomical Gastrointestinal Terminology Oral cavity Cavity that receives food for digestion Salivary glands Three pairs of exocrine glands in the mouth that secrete saliva: the parotid, submandibular (submaxillary), and sublingual glands Cheeks Lateral walls of the mouth Lips Fleshy structures surrounding the mouth Palate Structure that forms the roof of the mouth, divided into the hard and soft palate Uvula Small projection hanging from the back middle edge of the soft palate Tongue Mascular structure of the floor of the mouth covered by mucous membrane and held down by a bandlike membrane known as the frenulum Teeth Hard bony projections in the jaws for masticating food Pharynx Throat; passageway for food to travel to the esophagus and air traveling to the larynx Esophagus Muscular tube that moves food from the pharynx to the stomach Stomach Saclike organ that chemically mixes and prepares food
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received from the esophagus Cardiac sphincter Opening from the esophagus to the stomach Sphincter Band Pyloric sphincter Opening from the stomach into the duodenum Small intestine Tubular structure that digests food received from the stomach Duodenum First portion of the small intestine Jejunum Second portion of the small intestine Ileum Third portion of the small intestine Large intestine Larger tubular structure that receives the liquid waste products of digestion, reabsorbs water and mineral, and forms and stores feces for defecation Cecum First part of the large intestine Vermiform appendix Wormlike projection of lymphatic tissue hanging off the cecum with no digestive function; may help resist infection Vermin Worm Colon Portions of the large intestine extending from the cecum to the rectum, identified by direction or shape Ascending colon Portion of the colon that extends upward from the cecum Transverse colon Portion of the colon that extends across from the ascending cecum Descending colon Portion of the colon that extends down from the transverse cecum Sigmoid colon Portion of the colon that terminates at the rectum Rectum Distal portion of the large intestine Rectal ampulla Dilated portion of the rectum just above the anal canal Anus Opening of the rectum to the outside of the body Feces Waste formed by absorption of water in the large intestine, usually solid Defecation Evacuation of feces formed from the rectum
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