Yield,MolFrac,Raoult, Dalton 1-15-06

Yield,MolFrac,Raoult, Dalton 1-15-06 - Theoretical Yield,...

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Theoretical Yield, Limiting reagent, percent yield, : Calculation of Theoretical Yield The theoretical yield of a reaction is the amount of product that would be formed if the reaction went to completion. It is based on the stoichiometry of the reaction and ideal conditions in which starting material is completely consumed, undesired side reactions do not occur, the reverse reaction does not occur, and there no losses in the work-up procedure. In order to calculate the theoretical yield, you must first balance the reaction. Then, look closely to determine which reagents are being used in excess and which is the limiting reagent . The overall yield of product depends on the limiting reagent. Remember that catalysts, solvents, or any compounds that are not part of the actual chemical reaction cannot be the limiting reagent. Theoretical yield calculations are carried out in the same way as they were in general chemistry: the moles of limiting reactant determines the moles of product. After your laboratory reaction is complete, you will isolate and measure the amount of product, then compare the actual yield to the theoretical yield to determine the percent yield : In the laboratory, the percent yield has the practical aspect of telling you how successful was your synthesis scheme. A low percentage yield means that the conditions were not optimal and could be improved. Perhaps there are competing reactions occurring or some of the product is being lost in the purification steps. To calculate theoretical yield: Balance the reaction and determine the stoichiometry or ratios of reactants to products. Find the number of moles of each starting material used. Determine which reagent is limiting. Calculate the moles of product expected if the yield were 100% based on the limiting reagent. Calculate the grams of product corresponding to the number of moles expected.
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Three moles of 1-propanol reacts with one mole of phosphorus trichloride to produce 1- chloropropane. What is the theoretical yield if you begin with 75 g of 1-propanol and 75 g of phosphorus trichloride? The stoichiometry of this reaction is: 1-propanol to 1-chloropropane, 3:3 phosphorus trichloride to 1-chloropropane, 1:3 Since the stoichiometry of reactants to products is not 1:1, these ratios must be incorporated into the theoretical yield calculations (see below). The physical data (from the CRC) is:
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This note was uploaded on 09/05/2008 for the course CHEM 3201 taught by Professor Haney during the Fall '07 term at University of Houston - Downtown.

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Yield,MolFrac,Raoult, Dalton 1-15-06 - Theoretical Yield,...

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