NEUROSCINOTES

NEUROSCINOTES - NEUROSCIENCE Cells and some neroanatomy...

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NEUROSCIENCE 07/09/2008 17:05:00 Cells and some neroanatomy *mitochondrium- transforms energy into a useful form *cell membrane- surrounds the cell *neurocells usually have 1 axon and many dendrites *neurocellls: 1) carry information- input 2) integrate information-output *individual neurocells are computing centers *informational flow in a neurocell goes in the dendrites and comes out of the axon- left to right *axon- left sside of cell- very long *dendrite –right side of cell *2 types of cells: neurocells glia- more glia than neurocells o astrocytes- goal is to create a blood brain barrier, function is to prevent entry of bad  chemicals into the brain- blood brain barrier- injecting rat with blue chemicals neurotransmitters- o oligedendrocyte o microglia node of Ranvier 1) speeds electrical activity
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2) insulation Central nerosystem(CNS)  Periphiral (PNS) –  o schwann cells – wraps itself around the axon-  Function of processes to carry information Efferent- sending fiber away Afferent- getting fiber *collide in a synapse- use an electro microscope *use a light microscope-  *bacterium- 1 micron in diameter, 2microns lon *lollipop neuron JAN 22 nd   *Each nerve cell looks at a lot of inputs and decides whether or not to pay attention- the extension  becomes complicated *2 ways information flows in the brain electrical o takes place in axons chemical o takes place at  synapses (synaptic vesicles)  synapses are very small vessicles filled with chemicals  (NEUROTRANSMITTER is the chemicals)  and they work by releasing  chemicals- release chemicals out into the synaptic cleft/ gap
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once released into synaptic cleft, the chemicals can: 1) diffuse- spread out (sometimes into the extra cellular fluid (ECF)) 2) bind to a receptor on the post synaptic membrane   chemical  transmission - reception by a post synaptic cell of a molecule  released by a synapse-  3) chemicals bind to another structure in presynaptic membrane-  chemicals move back into presynaptic cell    recycling atoms: carbon nitrogen, oxygen, hydrogen- form molecules- binding can be amena group or  hydroxle group (with hyrdrogen), carboxyl group (with carbon)  proteins are big complicated molecules- little patch to which neurotannsmitter binds- binding  site made to be exactly complimentary to a 3-dimensional neurtransmitter  postsynaptic protein also has a receptor site- once neurotransmitter is bound to site, causes  receptor to change shape and do something to postsynaptic cell – action in postsynaptic cell  is the end of the act of transmission! – hundreds of tings that the interaction of 
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This note was uploaded on 09/07/2008 for the course NEUR 490x taught by Professor Mcclure during the Spring '08 term at USC.

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NEUROSCINOTES - NEUROSCIENCE Cells and some neroanatomy...

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