10/19/16-The cytoskeleton helps the cells move around, they have the same proteins that form the cytoskeleton.-Cytoskeleton gives the cell its shape, like blood cells-Liver cells contain large amounts of rough ER to help them produce different enzymes involved in digestion or protein synthesis so they can release hormones to regulate our blood sugar-Muscle cells are long and fibrous, often times are skeletal muscles are called striated because it has striations with proteins called myosin and actin fibers to facilitate muscle contraction. -Nerve cells have a unique shape, long tail called an axon, dendrites all dependent on the cytoskeleton for its unique shape -Cells of the intestine have microvilli; finger like protrusions that increase surface area to absorb nutritious things that you eat. They are structurally stable because of the cytoskeleton. -The same proteins that form the cytoskeleton play a role in cellular motion bymaking things like flagella and cilia-A cytoskeleton is broken down into 3 groups of protein structures:oMicrofilaments are made of double helix actin monomers-Actin- protein complex that are cells assemble different pieces of actin together into a double helix string that forms a microfilament. -Microfilaments stabilize the microvilli finger like protrusions -Microtubules- hollow tube of dimer, microtubules are formed by tubulin. Tubulin gets two dimers. So microtubules are made of a quartenary protein oDimer- two proteins that are together, quartenary-Intermediate filaments- strong proteins that act as shock absorbers inside the cell made of filament protein. Collection of different proteins to help stabilize the internal structure of the cell-Microtubules made of the dimer tubulin play a role in mitosis and meiosis. They form the spindle fibers that help pull the chromosomes apart during mitosis and meiosis. -Microtubules also form a highway throughout the cell connecting protein Vesicles that transport proteins from the ERgolgi apparatuscell membrane-Microfilaments- actin monomers tied together, structurally support the cell membrane -Intermediate filament- strong internal proteins that connect the different pieces of the cell and act like shock absorbers fiber composted of intermediate filamentoEx: if you walk into a door they help disperse the force so skin doesn’t shear off-Microtubules- also play a large role in motion. Cells have two major apendages that stable motion.
oFlagella- a long tail, most commonly associated with sperm that make a whip like s motion done by microtubules that get attached a 9/2 configuration And they work with atp to whip in an S like motion. Thatis unique to a eukaryote. like sperm, act as highway and participate in mitosis. responsible for the motion of cilia and flagella in eukaryotes oBacteria with flagella spin their flagella around in a circle-Cilia- short filaments like hair, whip like s shape motion. A lot in respiratory tract to help us expectorate, cough and push flem out. S like motion acting like a conveyer belt. -