Lecture Outline – Lecture 6 – Emotional and Social Development in Infancy and Toddlerhood Understanding Infant and Toddler Personality: Psychodynamic Theories General Impact: Freud’s ideas encouraged us to look at early emotional and social interactions as important influences on development Birth to 1 Year: What helps shape us? Freud’s approach : oral stage : amount of food, satisfaction with quantity shapes personality Erikson’s approach : focused on quality of mother’s behavior during feeing and general caregiving Psychosocial conflict : 1. trust vs mistrus t ; sees trust as the foundation of human development Quality caregiving= sensitive responsive, consistent No fear about the future, believe that others will be there to help with their needs, can depend on others and environment is predictable Psychosocial conflict is resolved positively if balance of caregiving is sympathetic and loving Negative resolution : mistrust Mistrustful baby cannot count on others, protects self by withdrawing Years 1 to 3 Freud’s approach: anal stage Toddlers take pleasure in holding and releasing waste Need to control impulses Erikson’s approach: psychosocial conflict: 2. autonomy vs. shame and doubt parents confront assertions of independence “me do it” so they don’t want parents to do everything for them anymore want to make decisions on their own so toilet training is just like one part of it all how parents handle assertions in multiple domains leads to feelings of shame and doubt or autonomy positive resolution: suitable guidance and reasonable free choice minimum forcing or shaming of the child tolerance and understanding not over or under controlling; give two choices to give them the reasonable free choice minimal shaming negative resolution : child feels shamed, doubts ability in the world Emotional Development during the First Two Years Emotional communication as first language Infants react to facial expressions and tones Parents read infant expressions Infants abilities change over first 2 years Development of basic emotions (happiness, interest, surprise, fear, anger, sadness, and disgust) Why considered basic? 1
Understood worldwide as well Directly inferred by facial expressions Signs of almost all of them are present in infancy (maybe not newborns but they come up within that first year) Happiness: binds parent and baby; fosters competence Early smiles : mostly reflexive and related to internal, physiological states Full tummy, while they are sleeping, etc. Social smile: responds to specific external stimuli 6-10 weeks like a face, environment comes along with improving visual Fear : doesn’t come up until like around 12 weeks Stranger anxiety : most frequent expression An expression of fear in response to unfamiliar adults Depends on situation and environment Emotional Development: The Next Level With time and experience, come to understand and respond to the emotion of others
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- Winter '08
- Developmental Psychology, secure attachment, strange situation, attachment classifications