Chapter 1 - Chapter 1 1.1 Woehler synthesized the organic...

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Chapter 1 1.1 Woehler synthesized the organic compound urea by heating the inorganic compound ammonium cyanate. The experiment showed that compounds found exclusively in living organisms could be synthesized from common inorganic substances. First breakthrough- identification of enzymes as the catalysts of biological reactions Extracts of yeast cells could catalyze the fermentation of the sugar glucose to alcohol and CO2 Catalytic effect of yeast enzymes on a simple reaction, the hydrolysis of sucrose. During catalysis an enzyme and its reactant, or substrate, combine to form an intermediate compound. Only a molecule with a suitable structure can serve as a substrate for a given enzyme. The lock-and-key theory which was later modified. Enzymatic catalysis produces very high yields with few, if any, byproducts. Biological reactions occur much faster than they would without a catalyst. Second breakthrough- identification of nucleic acids as info molecules. DNA is the genetic material. Watson and Crick deduced the 3D structure of DNA. DNA could replicate and transmit biological info to succeeding generations. DNA RNA Protein Normal flow of info from nucleic acid to protein is not reversible. “Central Dogma”- once info in nucleic acids is transferred to protein it cannot flow backwards from protein to nucleic acids. 1.2
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This note was uploaded on 09/08/2008 for the course BCMB 3100 taught by Professor Mendicino during the Spring '07 term at University of Georgia Athens.

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Chapter 1 - Chapter 1 1.1 Woehler synthesized the organic...

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