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Astronomy Study Guide Exam 2

Astronomy Study Guide Exam 2 - Astronomy Study Guide Exam 2...

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Astronomy Study Guide Exam 2 Chapter 7: Origin of the Solar System Solar Nebula Hypothesis - All planets and sun have a common origin. Planets probably formed from such a disk-shaped cloud around the sun and when the sun became luminous enough, the remaining gas and dust were blown away into space, leaving the planets orbiting the sun. Gravity pulls it in Conservation of angular momentum causes it to spin faster and faster Forms a rotating disk Capture Hypothesis - Gives no patterns. 2 Theories Evolutionary Type - Involve gradual processes Most theories are evolutionary. Catastrophic Type - Depend on specific unlikely events. Data for solar nebula theory As patterns: All planets have approximately the same orbital plane and direction. Most, including Sun, spin with North up. Two types of planets: Inner planets and Outer planets. 1. Disk shape of the solar system - Orbits in nearly the same plane - Common direction of rotation and revolution 2. Two planetary types -Terrestrial- inner planets; high density - Jovian- outer planets; low density 3. Planetary ring systems and large satellite systems for Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune 4. Space debris- asteroids, comets, and meteors -Composition -Orbits 5. Common ages of about 4.6 billion years for Earth, the moon, Mars, meteorites, and the sun.
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Terrestrial vs. Jovian Planetary Types Inner 4: Terrestrial Outer 4: Jovian Small with solid surface Gas giants Few or no moons Many moons Slow spin Fast Spin (fastest= Jupiter) No rings Rings Higher density 1. Sun 2. Mercury 3. Venus 4. Earth 5. Mars 6. Jupiter 7. Saturn 8. Uranus 9. Neptune 10. Pluto Extrasolar planets found by indirect evidence Extrasolar Planet - Planet orbiting another star. Way to find extrasolar planets is the Doppler shift, a change in the brightness of a star when an orbiting planet crosses in front of it. Dating by radioactive half life; age of the oldest rocks Half-life -The time it takes for half the atoms to decay. Half-life = 40 million years
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Astronomy Study Guide Exam 2 - Astronomy Study Guide Exam 2...

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