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2007-11-08 Lab 09 - Newton's Third Law and Conservation of Momentum

# 2007-11-08 Lab 09 - Newton's Third Law and Conservation of Momentum

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/ Physics 295 Introductory Laboratory I Partners Section Date LAB 9: NEWTON'S THIRD LAW AND CONSERVATION OF MOMENTUM To every action thereis always opposedan equal reaction, or the mutual actions of two bodiesupon eachother arealways equal, and directed to contrary parts. If you pressa stonewith your finger, thefinger is also pressedby the stone. If a horsedraws a stone tied to a rope, the horse (if I may say so)will beequally drawn backtowards the stone . .. . Isaac Newton Principia (1686) OBJECTIVES · To study the forces between objects that undergo collisions and other types of interactions with each other. · To examine the consequences of Newton's Third Law as applied to interaction forces between objects. · To formulate the Law of Conservation of Momentum as a theoretical consequence of Newton's Third Law and the impulse-momentum law. · To examine conservation of momentum in one-dimensional collisions. Physics Material: Newton's Laws of Motion, Conservation of Momentum, Impulse OVERVIEW In Lab 8, you looked at the definition of momentum, and examined the momentum changes of objects undergoing collisions. We focused our attention on the momentum change that an object undergoes when it experiences a force that is extended over time (even if that time is very short!). You also looked at the forces acting on objects during @1993-94P. Laws, D. Sokoloff and R. Thornton Supported by National Science Foundation and the U.S. Dept. of Education (FIPSE) Note: These materials have been modified locally for use in the U of L laboratories. Page 9-1

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Page 9-2 Real Time Physics: Active Learning Laboratory Vl.40--8/94 collisions, and examined the impulse-momentum law which compares the change in momentum to the impulse. Since interactions like collisions and explosions never involve just one object, we would like to turn our attention to the mutual forces of interaction between two or more objects. This will lead us to a very general law known as Newton's Third Law which relates the forces of interaction exerted by two objects on each other. Then, you will examine the consequences of this law and the impulse-momentum law which you examined in the last lab, when they are applied to collisions between objects. In doing so, you will arrive at one of the most important laws of interactions between objects, the Conservation of Momentum Law. As usual you will be asked to make some predictions about interaction forces and then be given the opportunity to test these predictions. INVESTIGATION 1: FORCES BETWEEN INTERACTING OBJECTS There are many situations where objects interact with each other, for example, during collisions. In this investigation we want to compare the forces exerted by the objects on each other. In a collision, both objects might have the same mass and be moving at the same speed, or one object might be much more massive, and they might be moving at very different speeds. What factors might determine the forces between the objects? Is there some general law which relates these forces? Activity
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2007-11-08 Lab 09 - Newton's Third Law and Conservation of Momentum

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