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PSYCH 100 Module Notes - substance P

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Modules Notes Module 10 Sensation- the activation of the sense organs by a source of physical energy Perception- the sorting out, interpretation, analysis, and integration of stimuli carried out by the sense organs and brain Stimulus- any passing source of physical energy that produces a response in a sense organ Stimuli vary in type and intensity Psychophysics is the study of the relationship between the physical aspects of stimuli and our psychological experience of them Absolute threshold- the smallest intensity of a stimulus that must be present for it to be detected Our senses are extremely responsive to stimuli Noise does not just refer to sound that obstructs the ability to hear- it also refers to obstructions of the other senses Difference threshold- the smallest level of added (or reduced) stimulation required to sense that a change in stimulation has occurred Just noticeable difference is another name for it The stimulus value that constitutes a just noticeable difference depends on the initial intensity of the stimulus Weber’s law- states that a just noticeable difference s a constant proportion of the intensity of an initial stimulus He found that the just noticeable difference in weight is 1:50 Adaptation- an adjustment in sensory capacity after prolonged exposure to unchanged stimuli Module 11 Accommodation- when the lens of the eye bends the rays of light so that they are properly focused on the rear of the eye Retina- the part of the eye that converts the electromagnetic energy of light to electrical impulses for transmission to the brain Rods- thin, cylindrical receptor cells that are highly sensitive to light Cones- cone-shaped, light-sensitive receptor cells that are responsible for sharp focus and color perception, especially in bright light Rods play a key role in peripheral perception Rods and cones are involved in light and dark adaptation- self-explanatory Rods contain rhodopsin- substance that changes chemically when energized by light Nerve cells in the retina called bipolar cells and ganglion cells receive a neural response from the stimulation of the nerve cells in the eye Bipolar cells receive information direct from rods and cones and communicates it to the ganglion cells Ganglion cells collect and summarize visual information Summary sent through bundle of ganglions called the optic nerve to the brain Optic chiasm- where each optic nerve splits Feature detection- the activation of neurons in the cortex by visual stimuli of specific shapes or patterns
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Trichromatic theory of color vision- the theory that there are three kinds of cones in the retina, each of which responds primarily to a specific range of wavelengths According to the theory, perception of color is influenced by the relative strength with which each of the three kinds of cones is activates
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