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PSYCH 100 Class Notes - Psychology Notes Experimental...

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Psychology Notes: 2-5-08 Experimental Research What is it? You manipulate some even or variable so that people experience it one way or another way and look to see if differences in behavior occur. When to use it? Is variable x a cause of variable y? Key terms: Independent variable Dependent variable Control Random assignment Strengths: Can determine cause and effect Gain control over the situation Weaknesses: Lacks external validity Statistics “Hold your breath and I will see how long you and the class can do it” Central Tendency measures: Mode- most often reported score Mean- average score Median- middle score Other Statistical measurements: Range- from lowest to highest score Statistical Significance? Outline- Neuroscience and Behavior 1. Neurons and Neural communication -Neurons/neural impulses -Neural communication -Neurotransmitters 2. Nervous system -Structure and function -Reflexes v. Neural network 3. The Brain -Studying the brain -Brain regions/ functions -Placidity -Hemispheric differences -Gazzigna articles/video Neurons- Structure
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Dendrite- the “in-box” it receives signals from: Sensory structures (like taste buds) Other neurons Cell body- basic cell functions Axon- the “out-box”; it sends signals to: Other neurons Effector cells (muscles) Myelin Sheath0 a fatty substance that encases the axons of some cells Increases the speed of transmission Terminal Vesicles (book calls “buttons” “axon terminals”) Stores and eventually releases enzymes called ‘neurotransmitters’ (NT). The NTs are released into the… Synapse- a small space between the axons of one cell and the dendrites of the next cell. Receptor Sites Locations on the dendrite of the next neuron; NTs bind to receptor sites and the whole process begins anew Neurons- Communication How do neurons communicate? 1. How does information travel without a neuron? Neurons- Communication-within Action Potential 1. All neurons have a resting state (-70 mv) 2. Dendrite is stimulated -Positive ions flow into the cell until… 3. Threshold is reached (-65 mv) -Action potential is triggered (all-or-nothing) 4. Wave moves down the axon 5. Wave reaches the terminal vesicles Neurons- Communication-between 6. Neurotransmitters are released into the synapse 7. NTs bind with receptors on dendrite of next neuron 8. Process starts in the next cell NTS can: -Excited the next neuron - Refractory period 1. Brief period when the neuron is unable to fire again -Reuptake occurs: excess NTs are taken back to reuse in the axon of the neuron that released them -Axon returns to resting state of -70 mv Neurotransmitters Acetylcholine Movement, learning, memory Alzheimer’s patients have too little
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Endorphins Natures pain reliever Eating chocolate, athletics, stress Serotonin Mood, sleep, hunger, arousal Prozac increases serotonin levels Dopamine Movement, learning, attention, emotion Too much- Schizophrenia Too little- Parkinson’s GABA Eating, sleeping
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