Chapter 3 - Egypt and the Bronze Age - Chapter 3 Egypt and...

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Chapter 3: Egypt and the Bronze AgeBefore the Pharaohs (5000-3000 BCE)oCivilization result of Neolithic and Chalcolithic agesoDeveloped and unified quickly Geography and cultureoSummer monsoon overflows Nile leaving fertile soiloRichest agricultural land in Mediterranean world w/ 3 crops a yro4 month long seasonsInundation: floodGoing forth: plantingDeficiency: low water and harvestTo keep track of seasons they created calendar based on moon w/ 12 months each w/ 30 days adding 5 to the end of the yroNile valley split into 2 Lower Egypt: Nile delta Upper: all the way to Kush (controlled access to products of central Africa) later known as Nubia oNomes: 42 districts together surrounded by desert w/ animal totems as symbolsoNo need for wheeled vehicle and roads bc Nile used as transportation oGenerally isolated from foreign contact OriginoLate Paleolithic age-5500 BCE Nile valley exploited for hunting, fishing, gatheringoPpl and animals forced to leave Sahara region as it dried outoBadarian culture (4500-3800 BCE): distinctive pottery w/o wheel- red brown w/ black rims, found in desert cemeteries -> evidence of social stratificationoNaqada I/ Amratian culture (circa 4500-3500 BCE): much use of copperBuried w/ min. figures of women and slaves (ushabtis) for needs in afterlifeoNaqada II/Gerzean culture: farming w/ dams, dikes, canals-store water for large farmland (basin irrigation)oMerimde beni-salame: virgin known as earliest Nile delta settlementReed huts, grew emmer wheat, domesticated animals, herringbone pottery, flax spun into clothesoMaadi culture: western delta, had copper industry, first to use grave goods sedentary lifestyle in oval hutsOverpopulation worsened by influx of Saharan desert dwellersProtected by ditch and wooden palisade that scattered bones and ashesvillage could’ve been captured bc lack of valuable items Naqada III Period(3200-3000 BCE)oMastaba: mud-brick rectangular enclosure had space on top for offerings Inside there was a rock for offering and statue of deceased Burial chamber beneath sunken room entrance filled w/ rubbleSliding and false doors kept robbers out oLower Egypt: ruler wore Deshret – broad red wicker crown2 Centers: Per-Wadjet/Buto rep by cobra goddess Wadjet & Zau/Sais devoted to water, war, weaving goddess NeithoUpper Egypt: ruler wore Hedjet - tall white crown
Chapter 3: Egypt and the Bronze Age4 Centers: Nubt=city of gold w/ storm god SetNekhen/Hierakonpolis – falcon god Horus, large timber palace (palace façade style) housed local ruler, circular stone area = 1stknown stone temple, elites had own private cemetery Nekheb – white vulture goddess Nekhbet, Wadjet’s sis, (primary deity of U.E.) This/Abydos – worshiped cemetery god KhentiamentiuoTomb U-j had 8 chambers had foreign objects, ivory scepter (symbol of rule), and bone labels earliest writing also used in serekhs (method for writing names stylized palace façade)o

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