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BIO 202 Lecture 9 - Cell Structure Organelles 1 Prokaryotic...

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Cell Structure: Organelles 1
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Prokaryotic cells : •Bacteria •Cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) Eukaryotic cells : •Protists •Fungi •Plants •Animals Prokaryotic vs. eukaryotic cells No NUCLEUS Smaller cells (1-5 µ m) Have NUCLEUS Larger cells (10-100 µ m) Compartmentalized
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Bacterial cell
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Cell size (why are they so small?) •A large surface area (cell membrane) is needed for the cell to interact with the environment . •Everything that the cell needs or has to get rid of has to go through the cell membrane, the amount of which relates to the surface area. •How much food and other material needs to be imported from the outside and how much waste the cell has to get rid of, is related to the volume (cytoplasm). From geometry, we see that the volume increases faster than the surface area. •This means that, if the cell gets too big, its cell membrane would not be able to meet the demands of its volume. One way to solve this problem is by making cells small!
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The cell membrane needs to be closer to the cytoplasm so that diffusion distances from the membrane to other organelles (e.g., nucleus) are smaller.
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