BIO 202 Lecture 5

BIO 202 Lecture 5 - Macromolecules 3: Proteins DNA =>...

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Macromolecules 3: Proteins
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DNA => RNA => Protein • This process amplifies: – 1 gene for fibroin (silk) => 10 4 copies of RNA => 10 5 molecules of protein per RNA => 10 9 protein molecules from 1 gene Transcription: DNA => RNA by DNA-dependent RNA polymerase (=from the language of nucleotides to the language of amino acids) (=in the same language of nucleotides)
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DNA vs. RNA • DNA: – Contains the sugar Deoxyribose – Contains the nitrogenous base Thymine • RNA: – Contains the sugar Ribose – Contains the nitrogenous base Uracil
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RNA • Types of RNA: messenger RNA (mRNA) transfer RNA (tRNA) ribosomal RNA (rRNA) – Also microRNA and short interfering RNA (siRNA) that regulate gene expression, small nuclear RNAs (snRNA) involved in splicing, and others Amino acid Ribosome Gene Chain of amino acids (protein)
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Translation • Translation = from RNA to protein • The genetic code is read in sets of 3 nucleotides called codons • (4 nucleotides) 3 = 64 combinations which encode for 20 amino acids – Three of these possible codons specify the termination of the polypeptide chain. They are called " stop codons ". That leaves 61 codons to specify only
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BIO 202 Lecture 5 - Macromolecules 3: Proteins DNA =>...

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