parasite review - Medfools Parasites Chart for USMLE I...

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www.medfools.com 1 Medfools Parasites Chart for USMLE I Parasitology Notes for USMLE I “Heeey…. fecal oral transmission???” PROTOZOA – INTESTINAL and UROGENITAL Entamoeba Histolytica (bloody diarrhea) Diseases Characteristics Habitat/Trans Pathogenesis Diagnosis Treatment Amebic dysentery- bloody, mucus diarrhea, liver and pulmonary abcess. Mostly asymptomatic. Trophozoite has single nucleus and ingested RBC , cysts have 4 small nuclei. Prevalent among male homosexuals. No animal reservoir. Fecal- oral transmision. Excyst in ileum, invade colonic epithelium, cause necrosis ( teardrop ulcer ), spread ( liver, lung ) ID trophozoites and cysts in stool. Serology positive in invasive amebiasis Absence of PMNs. Metronidazole, iodoquinol. Cysts removed by filtration, killed by boiling, not chlorination. Giardia lamblia (Nonbloody diarrhea) Giardiasis- nonbloody, foul smelling diarrhea, nausea, anorexia, flatulence, abdominal cramps for wks/months. Outbreaks at day care centers, mental hospitals. Pear shaped trophozoite, 2 nuclei, 4 pairs flagella, suction disk. Thick walled oval cyst w/ 4 nuclei 5% US stools have cysts, 50% asymptomatic carriers. Fecal contamination of food/water. Homosexual transmission. Excyst in duodenum, attaches-NO invasion, inflammation, malabsorption of protein/fat. Trophozoites/cysts in stool, string test , serology. Metronidazole Cysts removed by filtration, killed by boiling, iodine, not chlorination. Cryptosporidium (Nonbloody diarrhea) Cryptosporidiosis in immunocompromised- watery nonbloody diarrhea, fluid loss, malnutrition Fecal-oral transmision of oocysts from human/animal sources. Complex cycle occurs in epithelial cells of jejunum, NO invasion ID kinyoun acid-fast (red) oocytes in stool smear. No effective therapy. Try azithromycin Trichomonas vaginalis (NO cyst form) Trichomoniasis- vaginal itching w/ watery foul smelling, green vaginal discharge. Men asymptomatic. No cyst. Pear shaped trophozoites, 4 anterior flagella, undulating membrane (jerky movement) 25-50% sexually active women infected Sexual contact. Infects vagina, prostate. Predisposing factor is loss of vaginal acidity Both partners: metronidazole
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www.medfools.com 2 PROTOZOA – BLOOD and TISSUE Plasmodium Diseases Characteristics Habitat/Trans Pathogenesis Diagnosis Treatment Malaria- fever, chills, HA, myalgias, arthralgias two wks post bite. Fever spikes accompanied by nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, drenching sweats. Splenomegaly is common. Anemia due to lysis of RBCs, splenic sequestration of damaged RBCs. P. falciparum causes most severe malaria-can infect RBCs at all stages and causes adherence of RBCs to cerebral vascular endothelium via knob proteins (“cerebral malaria”.) P. ovale, P. vivax cause benign malaria . P.
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This note was uploaded on 06/17/2008 for the course MOD 2 taught by Professor Cunningham during the Spring '08 term at University of North Texas Health Science Center.

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parasite review - Medfools Parasites Chart for USMLE I...

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