Lecture 13 - Physics 040B/001-S08 Chap 18:1-6 Ideal Gases...

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May 20, 2008 Physics 40B Lecture 13 1 Physics 040B/001-S08 Chap. 18:1-6 Ideal Gases Review T = (273.16 K ) p p TP for CVG thermometer Linear Expansion Length expansion: Δ L = α L o Δ T ---> L = L o (1 + αΔ T) Area expansion: Δ A = γ A o Δ T γ = 2 α Volume expansion: Δ V = β V o Δ T β = 3 α Mechanical Equivalent of Heat: 1 cal = 4.186 Joules (of work) Specific Heats Heat Q = cm(T f - T i ) = cm Δ T c is specific heat, m is mass Q positive when heat energy flows into system c Water = 4186 J/kg o C 1 mole of a substance = N A number of molecules N A = Avogadro's Number = 6.022 x 10 23 molecules per mole n = mass/molecular weight = m (g)/ M (g/mole) Kelvin Temperature
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May 20, 2008 Physics 40B Lecture 13 2
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May 20, 2008 Physics 40B Lecture 13 3 Mechanisms of Heat Transfer Conduction Convection Thermal Radiation H = dQ dt = kA T H " T C L (J/s) Mass transfer H = Ae " T 4 Stefan-Boltzmann Law
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May 20, 2008 Physics 40B Lecture 13 4 Equations of state – A first model for describing the behavior of a gas is the ideal-gas equation. – Active study of gases is done by changing pressure, volume, temperature, or quantity of material and observing the result.
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May 20, 2008 Physics 40B Lecture 13 5 Ideal Gas Law • Boyle’s Law: • Law of Charles & Guy-Lussac V, n constant p V Isotherm T p p = constant x T p = constant x n when T, V constant p n Ideal Gas Law pV = nRT R = 8.31 J/mole K = 0.0821 L atm/mole K (Universal Gas Constant) p " 1 V or pV = constant T , n constant
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