2 - Introductory material ee457x1_051606

2 - Introductory material ee457x1_051606 - C‘mphr I...

Info icon This preview shows pages 1–23. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Image of page 1

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Image of page 2
Image of page 3

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Image of page 4
Image of page 5

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Image of page 6
Image of page 7

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Image of page 8
Image of page 9

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Image of page 10
Image of page 11

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Image of page 12
Image of page 13

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Image of page 14
Image of page 15

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Image of page 16
Image of page 17

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Image of page 18
Image of page 19

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Image of page 20
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

Unformatted text preview: C‘mphr I Intmducnan What L!- O. Computil' ? 51% E53093; PAPER { 32:”!- E’Roc' & .~ . m :Cpl‘fié'fib A? 0 HUMAN ”'12:; CO MPUTEK f5" 1!“ W“ C ALcOLAToa CPU MM I/o PROGvRA IMSTQUCTIGMS DATA LOGIC Um T GBERFEMDS Ame. 05 0 TmANGLé‘ 0 b FIGURE 1-2 The Levels of Abstraction in a Computer System. (From tn pfinfliph‘: oh EEmPU-tt't Ot’fitloiaflrfm 2nd Eehmtelar} Level figs rating 3 systems level Frog ra m m ing a I Ian gu age level Functional organization level Computer science E lectricai engineering Hardware 0 design level Electrical engineering Denis With Packages, jobs, canned routines Programs, statements, loops, conditions Memory, processors, I {0 devices, registers Gates, circuits, chips, boards Electrons, atoms, magnetism View ofa Computer A black box that solves problems A collection of problem-solving primitives in a high-level language A collection of major hardware subsystems A collection of discrete electrical components A physical system composed of elemental particles Think o6 dtebennt how: 05 abai'roEIToM for 0. CAR. 94qu i5 avdnittd'ure, coke: lb Organisation? ARCHITECTURE ta. m (SYSTEM...) preammmerit Level 5 Problem-oriented language level Translation {compiler} mi?“- 56 “it”. 06 m. “5‘25““. 0mm»: n m Translation-{assembler} i CM'dM") Might?” Vii” Level 3 (gotta, bmui‘fimtng.¢tt.) ARCHITECTURE stressing?" M. Q IBM 360; VA! H H ERIK? arel tad" 6r 5 :sn"::::?s:.\s—§D It3i" 3W 1" , W‘" "/73" are. mosh}: (stamp: implantation) Microprogramming level _ oi, as «new Mieroprogrems are o'ireetlt,Ir executed by the hardware Mast e5 Ilia. books can Computr (It’d-dildo“ ochre“? Level 1 Level {I E '2' g 0 Fig. 1-2. Six levels present on moSt modern computers. The method by which Q0“? 01"? a“: gati-Oh .— I each level is supported is indicated below it. along with the name of the supporting program in parentheses. (Fire-a Ednuobweri Compute Orgi‘tnifli‘o 1'? O’B Ccmpmftt’fi t w Tfimanqm} Computir Engimrina mdunh mad (5 hath compqfih- organiyflion M if primritu 49-016 mid: tr... kardmrt. CompuTu scifluc: filindwh Md [5 uudcmtucl Computu Granniaofim m it M94 I'Ktm duifin bath: campihrb and. 055. Hi?“ Pertflrmm Parana! campfire”: halal Pflrqflzf Ednaucfi‘zfls, Pam-“11151“? 0M3 Umforigim? Emigéflré, mmrmdch kaa, 01: a... PC) (Emiri 12w. Ulla-X51 can <1 {35:3}st apical-v3 My“) Mam, burial. driu'tl' dcéisn, cf: ”17"?" EE45T It is better to View the System Software as one layer decomposed as shown in Fig. 1.3 as opposed to viewing Compiler, Assembler, and Operating system as three layers in that order. Applications Software FIGURE 1.2 A simplified 1iriew of hardware and software as hierarchical layers, classicallyr shown as concentric rings building up from the core of hardware to the software ciosest to the user. l'- 5 Puwada EE457 Applications Systems Somvare Software Compilers Operating assemblers A Systems iir'irtual lit} Device Drivers FIEURE 1.3 An example or the decomposability or computer systems. The 1'3"“.5 at the bottom or the chart such as virtual memory. will be introduced '."- Chapters 1" and a. A cempiter may produce object code which may include calls to the operating system. For example, to read keyboard in the case of IBM PC, the compiler may make use of ENT 21 H DOS Function Call 8H which in turn may make use of a 8108 Keyboard interrupt routine type 16H. BIOS stands for Basic Input Output System which can be viewed as a low level operating system or monitor. The BIOS resides in an EPROMIROM and hides some low-level implementation details from the DOS. l --.. 45 Puvvads BEA 57 The Big Picture The five classic components of a computer Euae‘uatron Datapath CH . :5: 6 _- Proé'ossor FIGURE 1.1!]? Tho organlzafion' of_ '_a goontputor, showing the five class-lo components. The processor gets instructions a'no'oata from memory; input writes data to memory. and output roads data from memory. 'Control sends the signais that determine me operatlons or the datapath men'lory. input. and ouiput. I -—- 1 Puwado EE‘lS’iII 1.7 Historical Perspective The First Electronic Computers All computer organization students should know the names of these pioneers in the computers. Computer ENIAC 1 UNIVAC 1 IAS Year Designer(s) 1946 Eckert and Mauchly Programing was tedious and was done manually by plugging cables and setting switches. von Neumann gets credit for the concept of a stored program computer. 1949 Wilkes First stored program computer. Wilkes invented the concept of mtcroprogramming later in 1951 and built EDSAC 2. 1951 Eckert and Mauchly 1952 tron Neumann IAS =' institute for Advanced Studies, Princeton ' 1—- 3 Puwade EEAS‘? Com manta m__ First attempt to build a digital computer “—— Whiriwlndl First rasl-tlma‘oomputar UNIVAEI EoltartJMauohlsy First computer eold stintr'rtsreialltlr 1952 Mosteurrsnt maahlnea use this design 1963 BEOGU Burroughs First machine designed for a high-level language 19H E First produot line designed as a family iset saaa CDC First machine 1it'ltl'i extensive internal parallelism ass-s DEC First mass-market minioomputer {50,900 soidl DE C Dominated Minieomputers in the 19TD’s Price! Peri vs. £19515? UNIVAC- slim SM simian taxis: 52,431 seam teaser. Price Pned‘ Mills-ted 4J3 Pol-f. v5. UMVAC "5—3155 l'ricc .. 5mm. t- {Kai slits-t strewn-i: Power Peflurmzrlec Memory [adds-Bee} Heft ill] lititl ' [wallet W {flflfifl 3 fit tiara Cray-I I’DF‘S 191”! 19H 19‘“ ilBM steer ' nude! 50 Mm mu for inflation. Faun." the: ommtrat Hus-sum mu Prntilurr." Pact-ham. tormui'nal {mm-5t. m 1.29 Crur-‘Imristk: of he; commercial eomputen- sinrc 195.0, tn m mun- and in tel-91 Fig. 1-4. Some milestones in the development of the modern digital computer. .. .. _..__ _. _ ..._ . .. . ._. . . FPI‘JM Tahflfibqum l .. 9 Pu wads Computer Arithmetic, Unsigned and Signed numbers, 2's Comple- ment representation for Signed numbers, Unsigned and Signed number addition, overflow in addition, multiplication. Booth’s algorithm for multiplication of signed numbers, Restoring and Non- restoring methods of division for unsigned numbers mt 11w HUI! Sutnracticn or ‘ sedition or Shawn-m “m _ positive numbers poems numbers 1011 Data path unit and control step sequence for each of these. Instruction execution, Control sequences for typical instructions, Miorocoded or microprogrammed control unit for CPU Basics of memory, address and data line designations, memory for 16—bit systems, Processor address space, address decoding. | -- 11 Puwada logo [00‘ “II 00m +0 -\ 0 +6 19 uuo +7 one (”ml '5 E34 5? {13] Multiplioand M {11} MulliplierQ l I {l {I43} Product F [a] "Paper-ondvponoir multiplication algorithm A rcgisiier [inilially fl) SHIFT RIGHT M LJLTJ PLIER C} control ADDII] WGAD [JV MULTJPLICAND M [at Register configuration Control sequencer . . ‘L 1- 12 R1 R2 R3 initially El — Multiplier Multiplioand — FIGURE '1'.I|I| A | . into ntal FFUEBSSOE hurt . . “‘5 Computer procossor arrangement for multiplication. Puwada micro—archugtwa (319.2,; M3 . 3 (30563 ' 2 BU SE3 SE33“:- 0011511111311. ASIMPLE LOGIC? CIRQUITI'. IAILL THE-5E 11111111111011: 11.111111111110111“ 111 T1111- 51111.1 THAT THEY 11.1.1111? 111.1'1RMAT11H FRfiM. 11.511111111111 MINT. T11 111111111119. .EPEflH‘Z‘. PMHT IAHLV. ALWAYS. .IH.3¢1"~1E' D1REQT1DN1. .. .... _ I Hll- 11-1-11... "Him“ 1.. .. I.II.I.1’;|'=?I'-I°1I.I.I 15511351121119. £1111 111113“??? 15:11:11. "11111.“ I_I._.<:11111~111.':§t1 Inf-01min ChhfljI filmfifl'rm- and on. Io? £63411). ? 31.111.11.11 1,}. amt? flu-11' 11.1.11' 11111; 111 111.1111 111111111. 1 1:11.11 1‘11'1'1111 CE WéIrfiam-m I "1'1I1u' 11 7.0.1.1151... .11.? SELEcfiHa- 11:: 1111111111111. 111.1111.D1.-111.u. M11151. 01¢ 11.1.1. 1.11.11 5111.31.51: 111.111 11111 1111.51: ? II-I.(a EHAEMHG} 11111111- 111) 11an1 -"?i HIGH 741125 ..IEhPIEDANCE 11° 1-111. 3- STATE Deuces 1 IDEIWCES , .WHOSE 1:11.1'1'911'15 12.1.11 1.15 .: 1' ?SIE.LECTIVEL}' DISABLED (TRISTATEQIDII ISO. . iTHAT 111511 8511111119 .45 11° THEIR. 131.11.11.11 5 ”RE DlsCONNECTE'fl FROM The-535310;: :II‘I'HE CIE‘GUITR?‘ ARE KNOWN AS' ? fiance's 1111-111 31-31111-5011191” II‘n—Ilc ompur STATE 1.111511 T115}.A1I1~€.I 'DISAELED Is GENERALLY K111111111 AS. I M PE DANCE 'S TATE FLOATWG. STATE. T1111 101.111.1111 or 2.11 13.11.111.191» 311315111126 11.1:1'1'1-1 'T‘OTEM- PDLE 'ou‘rm'r . . . STAGE" :13 31mm HlQH 011’. 1.0114. E?1AMPLE‘ 7(10L1 —D0— 1011 .‘THE‘ 011115.? 11.1.1111, THE 01.119111 OF A 15.141511 1:111 LON IFIT'IE .NAELED AND IT PRESENTS HIGH OUTFU 1113.11.31.11) i 11 . OUTPUT 1 : ??£1?1'2‘5 IIIIIIIIIIIj ?— ..FII'I? 1:- ~— ' 111111111111. 3.? BI 3 -- 8 E111 Dnvi c115 Tu“ 45:11 DIVE Q13 “W? 65:0 =—""> (incl/EM 3— Statol in HtGH IMPEDANCE flat i“ FLOQI—inca Sarto. 0'3. nah); Io'n BUSI mad “I've-SM: Mg): ALLAH“ “-““ ‘ '_..'.'.':::"_. durhllrl-Jr-flj-ll-I‘IUI RDH‘HPWHLUAL LIHIESI“ hwf—J- _.___... _..__- _ LLLLLLILILIL tr L'LLLLLLLLILII_ an: cam-Loy SILL-9.3;; PLAL‘LLHL RLL'LLLLLLL p‘LIfLEEIRAILL ELL qrdgnan‘LL 25a Lu. IL- SHARL .. a._I .... ...-q- -I1I-I-IIrI-I-H-I -..-nun "...-..- m Icnmm IpLIpIILILI Ar OT“? LLLLL IcLLLIbJ m. cauUI ILLI- wJ-Lm #1'. II‘PKWEM?1:IIMIJ m Mai-3:. MIMMIM pump :5; L 1. LL' L'L' LL'LLLLILLLL'LLLLILLLL ILL-LL- SHUT- OAR-Wm M- LILLLpumpa (Ind-am £3.25- IIA IM art phgfimflg diacmmchd firm; In commrmIIML LI‘I'LLL‘A mi-LLLLLL .LL. LLLLLL Iii .. .. tmLLJLLLIbLLL-«muw . L...L..|.... ”J... ...—...L'ILLLL..,_.I. ......“ ..!...1I.... J. ;._.....;... ...-.iI_......I.. ..., ' ‘ I ..I. I. I.. IW'H Megan; «SALSHLLIT LIMI: ILLIIm'IILu-L. LangafluIIIII h'cLLLLLLJIL. MEELPQLE GTEULm+ 30.135! .L-LLLQS‘J: nu-Ll—Jn-LI—uLu-q-n-qIL-u-u-Lu—H- swi— -..- I I I' ..L ..souRcEI_I ' TRANSLS‘TO-E' ' 5.99m LLIL'IL'ILL- ILLLLIf Y=A—~ - £11- --.-.-I I-I—I—I-I-I- l -III-1II-ruI—I-i--—l-Iliind—r-I+ III? WILL“. CIaI'G' m LIOIIII'IIIIIIIzaIIIfII LLLLLLLL “*5. Hum IMPedJLu'LE Luis (A a Lms auFLLLLLL) oJLLL ILLLLLLLLL FLuA‘rIHc. STATE 0“" Law-LAW ML " m emu: :5 TH nee—$12M: o' "m OUTPU'I' Is TRI—SrATEM man—hm: sum IL LJELLLLMLLHLL. _: S NIQII msouacgs I' I..;LLILLL... III E My, 3 w an. DESTLMA'HONSL f; 5’- RN R0 RP Lawn: I'RIEAp Chum ILL .‘flwv w'ef Ww an L: wen-E mummwm ...
View Full Document

{[ snackBarMessage ]}

What students are saying

  • Left Quote Icon

    As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

    Student Picture

    Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

    Student Picture

    Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

    Student Picture

    Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern