Sociology Midterm 2 Spr 201 - Study Guide for Midterm 2...

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Study Guide for Midterm 2 Sociology I Name_______________________________ Chapters 3, 5 – 7 Spring 2016 Chapter 3: Socialization Terms: Self Generalized other Resocialization slide 67 Taking the role of the other Looking Glass Self Non-definitional questions: Recognize the socialization process . What is the Nature-versus-nurture debate? -Disagreement about the relative importance of biology (nature) and the social environment (nurture) -Darwin: led people to think that human behavior was simply our nature. Led us to think that people are born criminals women emotional and men rational. -Watson: developed behaviorism: behavior is learned. People are equally human, nurture. Nurture matters more in shaping human behavior. What did we learn from Harlow’s research? - Placed rhesus monkeys in conditions of social isolation. -Six months of complete isolation was enough to disturb development. Survived were unable to interact with others when placed in a group. -Monkeys want closeness how important it is that adults cradle infants What did we learn from the cases of Anna, Isabelle and Genie? - Anna and Isabelle: years of isolation left both children damaged and only capable of approximating a normal life. While Anna died, Isabelle received intense learning program, on her way to a relatively normal life. -Genie: suffered permanent disabilities. Psychological Theories Freud --What must happen to humans’ basic, self-centered drives? -Humans have two basic needs: need for sexual and emotional bonding which he called “life-instinct” or eros and an aggressive drive he called “death instinct” or thanatos. -Model of personality: id, ego, and superego. Id: represents the human being’s basic drives, which are unconscious and demand immediate satisfaction. Id: present at birth. Ego: balancing pleasure seeking drives with the demands of society. We cannot have everything we want. Superego: our conscience telling us why we cannot have everything we want. Everyone’s behavior should take account of cultural norms. Piaget --what did he study? Recognize examples of Piaget’s various stages of development (Sensorimotor, Preopeational, and etc.). -Studied human cognition: how people think and understand. Stages: Sensorimotor Stage: sensory contact understanding, Five senses Preoperational Stage: use of language and other symbols. Stage in which a child is characterized, children begin to think about the world mentally and use imagination. Concrete: perception of casual connections in surroundings, how and why things happen. Formal Operational ; think abstractly and critically. What was the focus of Kohlberg’s research? How did Carol Gilligan extend Kohlberg’s research? What is Erik Erikson’s view of socialization? - Study moral reasoning or how individual judge situations as right or wrong.

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