NanoLect2 - We will Focus on a Bottom-Up Nanoparticle...

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We will Focus on a Bottom-Up Nanoparticle Preparation Method Called “Template Synthesis” A great way to make nanowires and nanotubes. Can make these nanostructures out of any material. Dimensions can be controlled at will. Template synthesis is practiced in labs everywhere in the world and has become a workhorse nanomaterials fabrication technology.
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Scanning Electron Micrographs of a Nanopore Alumina Template Membrane Prepared in the Martin Lab Surface Image Very high density of monodisperse pores. Cross-Sectional Image Pore diameter can be controlled at will (10 nm to 200 nm). Template Synthesis Begins with a Nanopore Membrane or Other Solid
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The Pores in Such Membranes Can be Used as Templates to Prepare Nanomaterials Monodisperse solid nanowires and hollow nanotubes have been prepared. A very versatile method - Nanostructures composed of metals, polymers, semiconductors, other inorganic materials, carbons, etc. have been prepared. Composite nanostructures - Concentric tubular nanostructures. Segmented nanowires. Template synthesis is now one of the workhorse nanomaterials synthetic strategies and is practiced in laboratories throughout the world.
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Nearly Any Synthetic Method Used to Prepare Bulk Materials Can be Used with the Template Method to Make Nanomaterials Electrochemical metal deposition. Electroless metal deposition. Electrochemical polymerization. Chemical polymerization. Chemical vapor deposition. Sol-gel methods. Hydro-thermal methods. Center for Research at the Bio/Nano Interface
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A Simple Example – Metal Nanowires can be Made by Electrochemical “Template Synthesis” Metal electrode attached to template membrane Template membrane Pore Pore Pore Pore Electrochemical Gold Deposition (Long Time) Electrochemical Gold Deposition (Short Time) Au nanoparticle Au nanoparticle
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Electron Micrograph of Gold Nanowires Protruding from a Plasma-Etched Polymeric Template Surface
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High surface area electrode materials for high-power batteries
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Nanotubes are Obtained When the Synthetic Chemistry Begins at Pore Wall Cross-Section of Membrane Pore Pore Pore Surface-catalyzed electroless deposition Surface-catalyzed polymerization Chemical vapor deposition Sol-gel chemistry Etc., etc…. . Nanotubes lining pore walls Center for Research at the Bio/Nano Interface
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Scanning Electron Micrograph of an Array of CVD Template- Synthesized Carbon Nanotubes Membranes for electrokinetic transport phenomena
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Electron Micrograph of Sol-Gel Template-Synthesized Silica Nanotubes Smart nanotubes for bioextractions and biocatalysis
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Electron Micrograph of a Polycarbonate Template with 20 nm-Diameter Pores
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Polypyrrole Nanotubes Prepared by Chemical Polymerization within the Pores of a Nanopore Polycarbonate Template Nanotube Bio-Reactors – see e.g.  Nature , 1994, 369 , 298-301 
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Conical Gold Nanotubes* Prepared by Electroless Deposition within Conical Pores in a Polycarbonate Template ip diameter = 25 nm.   Length in each case is 10  μ m.
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NanoLect2 - We will Focus on a Bottom-Up Nanoparticle...

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