Lecture 3 - How Can Carbon Form Four o Bonds, 109.5 Apart?...

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How Can Carbon Form Four Bonds, 109.5 o Apart?
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Carbon • In its outermost shell, carbon has – One s orbital –Th ree p orbitals
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s Orbitals s –Spherical –One s orbital for each energy level
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p Orbitals p – Dumbbell-shaped –Th ree p orbitals for second energy level and above – Directional • Each is perpendicular to the other two
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Methane • Tetrahedral shape • Bonds are 109.5 o Cannot use s and p orbitals—why?
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Hybridization is the Solution Combine atom’s atomic orbitals to form a special set of directional orbitals New orbitals named by atomic orbitals that construct it
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4 Equivalent Orbitals for Methane 2s + 2p x + 2p y + 2p z = 4 sp 3 hybrid orbitals
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sp 3 Hybrid Orbitals –1/4 of an s orbital and 3/4 of a p orbital –Angle between the sp 3 orbitals is 109.5 o
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Bonding in Methane
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All Bonds in Methane are Sigma Bonds • The first bond to form between any two atoms is a sigma ( σ ) bond – Sigma ( σ ) bonds are formed by orbital overlap along the axis joining two atoms • “Head-on” overlap • Strongest type of bond
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Sigma Bonds with Unhybridized Orbitals • “Head-on” overlap s-s σ overlap s-p σ overlap p-p σ overlap
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Hybridization in Ethene: A Model for Trigonal Planar Geometry CC H H H H
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sp 2 Hybrid Orbitals •A n sp 2 hybrid orbital – 1/3 of an s orbital and 2/3 of a p orbital – Angle between the sp 2 orbitals is 120 o – Unhybridized p orbital is oriented perpendicular to the plane containing the three sp 2 orbitals.
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Bonding in Ethene 3 sigma ( σ ) bonds •1 ± forms ±v ia ± sp 2 -sp 2 overlap •2 ± form ± sp 2 -s overlap • Unhybridized p orbitals bond via a sideways overlap •No t ±a ± σ bond—why?
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Lecture 3 - How Can Carbon Form Four o Bonds, 109.5 Apart?...

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