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Module 44 Reading Notes

Module 44 Reading Notes - Julie Zimmerman Personality(Page...

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Julie Zimmerman November 16, 2007 Personality (Page 597; Modules 44-46) MODULES 44: THE PSYCHOANALYTIC PERSPECTIVE (PG 598) DEFINITIONS Personality: an individual’s characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting Free Association: in psychoanalysis, a method of exploring the unconscious in which the person relaxes and says whatever comes to mind, no matter how trivial or embarrassing. Psychoanalysis: Freud’s theory of personality that attributes thoughts and actions to unconscious motives and conflicts; the techniques used in treating psychological disorders by seeking to expose and interpret unconscious tensions. Unconscious: according to Freud, reservoir of mostly unacceptable thoughts, wishes, feelings, and memories. According to contemporary psychologists, information processing of which we are unaware. Id: Contains a reservoir of unconscious psychic energy that, according to Freud, strives to satisfy basic sexual and aggressive drives. The id operates on the pleasure principle , demanding immediate gratification. Ego: the largely conscious, “executive” part of personality that, according to Freud, mediates among the demands of the id, superego, and reality. The ego operates on the reality principle , satisfying the id’s desires in ways that will realistically bring pleasure rather that pain. Superego: The part of the personality that, according to Freud, represents internalized ideals and provides standards for judgments (the conscious) and for future aspirations. Psychosexual Stages: The childhood stages of development (oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital) during which, according to Freud, the id’s pleasure-seeking energies focus on distinct erogenous zones. Oedipus complex: according to Freud, a boy’s sexual desires toward his mother and feelings of jealousy and hatred for the rival father. Identification: the process by which, according to Freud, children incorporate their parents’ values into their developing superegos. Fixation: according to Freud, a lingering focus of pleasure-seeking energies at an earlier psychosexual stage, in which conflicts were unresolved. 1
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Julie Zimmerman November 16, 2007 Personality (Page 597; Modules 44-46) Defense Mechanisms: in psychoanalytic theory, the ego’s projective methods of reducing anxiety by unconsciously distorting reality Repression: in psychoanalytic theory, the basic defense mechanism that banishes anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories from the consciousness. Regression: psychoanalytic defense mechanism in which an individual faced with anxiety retreats to a more infantile psychosexual stage, where some psychic energy remains fixated. Reaction Formation: psychoanalytic defense mechanism by which the ego unconsciously switches unacceptable impulses into their opposites. Thus, people may express feelings that are the opposite of their anxiety-arousing unconscious feelings.
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