Anth160, Sp08, Studyguide

Anth160, Sp08, Studyguide - LJJ Varieties of the Human...

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Unformatted text preview: LJJ Varieties of the Human Experience Exam 1 Study Guide AnthrOpology terms/concepts l7 ie I (I work 0 participant observation and language lnterventiorr ethics, human rights (ex. int‘anticide, Reciprocity vs competition Indigenous peoples Colonialism (neocolonialism) Persistence of domination & dependency along colonial lines after colonialism Cultural relativism (limits‘?) 0 understanding a society’s customs & ideas in th diachronic not synchronic. requires empathy; must understand multiple worldviews female genital mutilation) o the formal granting of independence- neo~ e context ofthat society, not judged from pointof-view of observers culture 0 Limits - cross-cultural comparison virtually is morally acceptable ~ human rights Stewardship vs ownership ~ land is commodity: real estate— impossible~ no behavior immoral as long as that culture agrees it most indigenous peoples Opposed to commoditication of their land linculturation- the process whereby individuals learn their group's culture, through experience, observation, and instruction. l-lolism {holistic nature) Cultural stasis Cultural survival Finding Anthmpology lr'our sub lields oi" anthropology 0 Biological anthropology the study of human biolog I Concerned with the manner in which all these things ar environments in which the subjects areliving ' The study of the biological processes ol‘human and their primat contexts or environments Archaeology the retrieval and study ofhuman remains e related to the natural and social e relatives in their nature and social 0 ' Attempts to find and study all the traces that human groups have left behind of themselves and of all their activities- and they seek to understand the ways these remains are related to each other and the environment in which they occur 0 Linguistics- the study and analysis of human communication systems. but most e3pecially of language - lt embodies the use ot'research into languages in order to better understand the nature ofhuman beings as a species 0 Cultural anthropology— the study of culture and cultures ' Culture consists of the shared patterns of behaviors and associated meani participate in within the group to which they belong - The better we understand culture. the closer we shall come to und ngs that people learn and erstanding what it means to be a human. Origins ol" anthropology o 'l‘raced back to ancient Greece and the civilization of the Middle East 0 Some believe an ancient Greek named Herodotus might be the father of anthrOpolog Franz Boas 0 Father of American Anthropology 0 Changed the way people looked at anthropology lili. ’l‘ylcr o More concerned with culture than with includes knowledge beliel‘, artr morals. member ol‘ society“ 0 Attempted to demonstrate that culture had evolved from simple to complex and that it is possible to reconstruct the simple beginnings ol'culture by the study ol‘its"survivals“ in contemporary “primitive” cultures 0 Believed society evolved from simple to complex through identiliable stages society, defining culture aliinclusive as “that complex whole which laws, customs and other capabilities and habits acquired by mm as a Culture lithnography (participant observation) Cultural evolution l-ithmicentrismu consider their own way ot‘lit‘e superior to all others and theyiudge others lifestyles Societies 0n the Brink l LI.) [\J .12. [J1 4L1 bJ \JQ" ix.) 'Jt a l Ethnocide vs genocide o Ethnocide - Killing of a peOple‘s culture, without killing the people themselves 0 Genocide ~ The intentional mass killing ofa group of people listinction ol‘small societies Benefits ofcultural survival Misreprescntations of anthmpologists o Anthropologists want tribal peoples left along simply to preserve a traditional way of life. They therefore want to halt the push to explore and exploit the resources ot‘the earth 0 Anthropologists would like to keep tribal peoples isolated in what amount to human zoos for their own research purposes 0 MORE Indigenous Education and the ProsDects for Cultural Survival l-laskell 0 First a Indian boarding school (1800) founded by US government 0 US acquired millions of acres ofNative American peoples land in exchange for promises to provide education. health care and other services 0 First provided agricultural training for grades 1-5 Authoritarian learning 0 Not allowed to speak native language Cut off hair, discarded customary garments and refused to let students practice traditional forms ofspirituality O Wore uniforms. assigned to battalions and were subjected to a strictly regimented life ordered by bugles. bells O and rules 0 Harsh diSpline included corporal punishment Boarding school Strategies of assimilation Endangered language revitalization liducation policy Pedagogical approaches 0 Pedagogical- emphasizing individual rather than collective achievement 0 Schools tend to be deeply authoritarian in proactive and hierarchical in its organization 0 limbraced military regiments as an essential tool ol‘ethnoeide Language, Culture and Power llrarina o Reside in a region of Peru 0 Major threat is that local and national government wants to bring loggers and petroleum businesses into the region APRl (Amazonian Peoples Resources Initiative) 0 Dedicated to the defense and revalorization of indigenous languages and cultures a primary school education to Urarina men, women and children which is reSponsive to their 0 Hopes to extend ng the in formal. orallybased pedagogic modes with the Urarina currently educational needs. while incorporati employ listablishmcnt of schools 0 State sponsored schools are a new development 0 Revalorization of indigenous language (Pl’MBlBilingual 'l‘eachcr Training Program 0 Promises to produce a new generation ol’appropriately trained intercultural teachers capa moribund community bilingual schools so that they can once again resume their position as the vibrant force behind cultural and political innovation in indigenous communities 0 Encourages students to learn who they are as a peOple, how their society is organized, what their cultural and aesthetic values are, and how language reflects and expresses their peoples distinctive worldview ble of revitalizing the Language preservation Politicst Population, and Family Planning in Guatemala Ch’orti' Maya 0 SE. Guatemala & NW Honduras; about 15.000 Speak own language, most of 75.000 bilingual in Spanish. 0 'l"echnology. writing. science. math. longdistance exchange networks transmitted shared beliefs and practices. 0 Once resided in vast area. endured colonial encounter. reduced population. Yet not extinct. Lasted over 700 years. l-‘amily planning (local. traditional. modern methods) o liamily planning is resisting Gods planning 0 Most Ch‘orti focus on short-term survival. only spiritual experts and elders look to future 0 Thought birth-control was a trick 0 Local 0 Natural or rhythm method. celibacy. sterilization, traditional abortificants (dangerous) 0 Some men would sleep with wives only the week after period 0 Traditional 0 Celibacy. selective postpartum neglect and orphanages 3 Colonialism/industrial revolution 4 International funding 5 lnfant mortality 0 Related to mothers age of birthing. birth spacing. number ofpregnancies and pre and postnatal medical attention a l-‘crtility vs mortality 0 High birth rates suitable for Mayan subsistence patterns where labor power valued 0 Children provide parental/family security (see importance ofkids in their language) 0 Mortality rates show worse quality oflife. reduced lifeexpectancy (major cause of death is poor living conditions (it: malnutrition) 7 Migration 0 Many Ch‘orti‘s are now interested in migrating to the US (they don’t understand the risks and distance involved) 0 Societies with high fertility rates try to expand into new territories o Attempts to reclaim land unsuccessful, often leads to violence. 0 Population increase led to emigration in 503, by 80s those lands in Honduras gone, new dream to go to states 8 Catholic view and traditional view The Kayapo l ('icographic location 2 Age groups/gender roles j 'l‘wo villages at lndigenous representation 5 Use of technology n (iold mines Indigenous Media Gone Global 1 lssues/thcmes/aims o "l‘hemcs - The eXploration of family dynamics ' The representation ofepic traditional stories I The hard~hitting contemporary urban realities for indigenous people ' The strong ties to land and commitment ofNative activists and communities to their tradition territories 7 First Nationsr’First l‘cature Film Showcase ‘l 0 May 2005 in New York and Washington DC. . 0 first feature films by indigenous filmmakers from around the world were screened to highlight an emergent world cinema 0 25 films (3 key documentaries and several short fictions and feature films) 0 Celebrate and reflect the tremendous diversity, ingenuity and tenacity of indigenous cultural ways of life, storytelling and filmmaking. “indigenizing the screen” 4 Challenges of indigenous filmmaking 0 Lack of access to the means ofproduction (equipment. funding ect.) o Difficult to finance films because don‘t tell stories for large audience 0 translating indigenous storytelling and aesthetic traditions to film Ls.) 'l'he Nanook of the North 5 0 Robert lilahcrty. l-‘ilm criticized for inaccurately portraying Inuit way oflife. o Portrayal of lnuit — lilaherty wanted to represent struggles of this guy and his family# erased signs of modernity. limphasixes “traditional” way of life. Flaherty said he had distort‘walrus harpoon scene‘ to capture essence ofa culture. The Makuna l (lender roles 0 Women do gardening. represents child birth. female fertility. 0 Men made baskets (associated with forest). women make pottery 2 Symbolism {\J L») lJI 4—K (3 Religious aSpects o Shamans communicate with the spirits oversee ritual performance & use their sacred knowledge to cure illness Cosmology MCI/(Mu (Longhouse) comprised ofa core ofmale kin, their wives‘ & their children. Ritual, housing, burial. f‘ié world 0 Invisible Makuna Spirit world known as“he”. o Hunter/shaman journey to the realm oflre and communicate with the guardian Spirits ol‘the animals to obtain more game & fish Marriage practices Spirit food 0 Coca (not a drug). Sacred power ot‘yage Amazonian Rain forest ecosysteiii/nutrients Rivers provide the Makuna with an abundant source ofsustenance & rich mythical expression. Blacltx-vater River. Waiya or‘lish river‘. Blacltwater environment of northwest Amazonia presents tremendous challenges to human inhabitants O Peach palm ritual o liest that involves the l'O—dlSIl’lbLlIlOll ofmassive amounts of fish & meat. 0 A re-enaetment of the dances oi’the ancestral Fish Pe0ple whose Spirits occupy the timeless world of the myth. o Masks objectil’y inner visions. Linguistic exogamy The Wayuu Geographic location 0 La Guajira Peninsula in northern Colombia. (Juajira landscape 0 This desert holds immense coal reserves Matrilincal clans l’astoralism Peorjle who follow animals.“Herders" Po 1 ygy ny ...
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This note was uploaded on 08/11/2008 for the course ANTHRO 160 taught by Professor Dean during the Spring '08 term at Kansas.

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Anth160, Sp08, Studyguide - LJJ Varieties of the Human...

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