Hist 353, Studyguides

Hist 353, Studyguides - History 353 Indian removal Act of...

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Unformatted text preview: History 353 Indian removal Act of 1330—- Congress gets federal money to negotiate treaties with Indians, money to pay for removal, very controversial, passed with a 4 vote margin, removal was very difficult many died during the removal of cholera epidemic, Creeks, :MW Choctaws, Chickasaws, Seminoles, and the Cherokee put up a fight leading tol herokee ’ o o g 253m,» , :I .. t... hut-T“) -. i LuNatlons vs. Georgia, all were forced to settle 1n the west. i.- am... t - . ~ . ' n ' “_ - t. ‘n :2. a 5%lfiyalétf Worcester vs. Gegrgia- Missionary from New England, Worcester would have pledged allegiance to Georgia, arrested, Cherokees talked him into suing, John Marshall ruled in favor of the Cherokees- could not extend law over Cherokee tribes, state to state relationship with the federal government, nullified Georgia Law, 1832, Cherokee Nation is a distinct community, Occupymg its own territory. .» “v = J I ' ' . \ . - I: . I. V ' '_ .. a c _ ' _ 'o. . . 4 + ~. ' tam . - ‘- - w. -. um y...:-rcr- . , .. g» ‘ ‘ Neolin- Delawares (Line Linape) message spread throughout Ohio and Great Lakes region, said that he met creator (Master of Life), mad at the Indians for alcohol, practicing witchcraft, and interacting with EurOpeans, a prOphecy of resistance against whites, Pontiac was a strong believer in him, attacked and got 7 British forts, British won, and the King placed Proclamation line of 1793, lands west of Appalachian Mnts, in part led to the American Revoltion. 2'“ Cherokee War/Dragging Canoe- Elders wanted Peace, younger wanted to get settlers out of land, Dragging Canoe- young warrior said he would make land "dark and bloody ground, May 1776, Delawares and Shawnees urged them to go to war with “settlers, launched raids on settlers, American retaliate— 3 American Armies march into Cherokee homelands, burnt 60 villages, livestock killed or stolen, fields burned, Elders proved to be right, and signed a peace treaty, war ended and give up land in Kentucky and Tennessee, Dragging Canoe- angry, moved to Georgia by Muskogee’s and he continued to fight against Americans, joined Chickamauga’s and continued to fight. Treaty of New Echota- 1836, signed without Cherokee council, Major Ridge “just signed my death certificate,” treaty went to senate for ratification, when senate debated did behind closed doors, ratified by 1 vote margin, 2/3rds majority gave Cherokee until end of 1837 to leave, those who followed John Ross refused to leave, 183 8- US Army came to force them to leave, forced them west, 183 8—39 all but a 1,000 forced West, many died. in John Ross:- Principle Chief of Cherokees, slave holder, Ross was loyal to the North, Ross told Albert Pike no thanks on an alliance within Cherokee, Old Party Members signed with Stand Watie, John Drew was one of Ross’s followers, Ross Partisans were made up of the Pins (Keetowahs), Ross negotiated surrender-against confederates Cherokees, Ross went to Washington DC, Cherokees faired better because of Ross. Stand Watie- believed the Cherokees should sign alliance with the confederacy, by doing this would obtain wages and guns, Pike got the divided Chickasaws and Creeks to sign with the Confederacy went back to Cherokee asked for a vote 1861 Stand Watie and Cherokees sided with the confederacy. Union forces forced Watie’s troops to retreat to Canadian River, Watie was made a general in the Confederate Army, he was the last Confederate General to surrender. Comanche? (Shoshonean) most powerful in the Southern Plains, border of CO and KS to Rio Grande River, moved to plains after European invasion, Shoshonean language common in Rocky mountains, moved to the Plains and encountered Apaches- rich in horses, attacked and Comanche acquired horses, had little unity, but as they became ' trade, became wealthy, me good hunters so they would gain status, more horses=more status, polygamy, cut women’s hair and braided it into their own, wife not property, 1St wife in charge of other wives, polygamy: high birth rate, women trade goods in Taos, a Lakota and Comanche: Lords of the Plains. .l {H‘w ‘hw-r-I—ku _ better, Lakota = lords of the Plains. Railroads- completed in 1869, linkng Chicago to CA, Rails go anywhere and everywhere, govemment- gave rail companies over 181 million acres of land to finance lines, bidders funded rails, no interest loans, many companies went bankrupt, military- went right through hunting grounds of the Plains Indians, forced to sign treaties to live on reservations, Rail companies and military slaughter buffalo, without buffalo must move onto reservation, led to extinction of North American Bison. Homestead act helped rail companies acquire more land, cattle drive- plains of Texas to rail hubs, cowboys become drivers for rail companies. ’ 3' 5.; turn»..- Ejt ° 1, .-,,',q,'-"‘~"’éh:,. 7: fluff-$96 “" (fr/'5 m“ MA?” I‘ f ‘ y ‘,\’ I. F .f . 4,. n “' f E! “a Debt Purchase- 1861-1825 only federaliigovemmeiit could trade with the Indians, trade through US agents, Jefferson was clear about intentions, All goods they could get could not pay debt and all they had was land, get land for debt they owed to the United States. pm I; 4N? b ‘ V3. 3 ‘1. & ', ) .I’ 'I’" x , .- Tecumseh- 1811, Tenskwatawa’s brother, gained high regard as warrior in the Ohio Valley wars, much prestige in the old Northwest, would visit south, the Creeks spread his brothers prophecies, visited Muskogee, taught new dances, believed they would purify themselves through doing dances. “Red Sticks”- (1811-1814) Muskogee/ Creeks, Creeks divided, Mestizos had become wealthy and turned their backs on traditions, spoke many different languages, but many spoke Muskogee, Muskogee: world divided in 3rds— upper world- purity and light underworld— sacred power for fertility and healing, this world— keep power in balance to do proper rituals and ceremonies, Benjamin Hawkins tried to get them to take up white ways... stop hunting, women domestic, mestizos only people who listened, by agreeing to give up land they turned their backs on the Muskogee, Creeks became more respected after rebellion, religion also changed after rebellion, more missionaries from the North, Presbyterian, Methodist, Baptist, 1820’s missionaries get some to convert. Black Hills— 1874, sacred lands of the Lakota Indian Nation, The Lakota were sent to live on lands in North and South Dakota according to the treaty of Ft. Laramie. These lands were hunting grounds, spiritual lands were young men would go to seek their “visions.” Gold was discovered in the Black Hills and many white fortune seekers would invade these lands. Like in many cases the white settlers would call for the Federal government to remove the Indians and allow them to mine for gold. ., s. _ '- 5;- . Blue Jacket- In 1791 warriors of the northwestern Indian Confederacy, led by the Miami war chief Little Turtle and the Shawnee Blue Jacket, inflicted a smashing defeat on the United States, destroying an American army under General Arthur St. Clair, governor of the Northwest Territory. In the wake of that defeat the United States dispatched commissioners to meet with the Indians and negotiate a settlement, but the Americans would not agree to the Indian demand that the ,th0 River remain the * f‘q - -\ w i 3 . boundary to then lands. Lw ,. Mr. M: t, 3.x 5:1. a. .... 5 ~,..«,~.;.K,.,g , 1;... at f» a“ w 1 '° '« ~’ .‘....\ ‘ KKJIV . Mug - 3 :ini“. $.‘_"-_‘:'l '4”: V 1‘”.- . . . a, f ‘3- 3' f i \g {I ‘ KW Sand Creek— The Southern Cheyenne Indians were not to go above the Arkansas River according to the Treaty of Ft. Wise. However many of these groups were traveling past this line to hunt for food. Commander Custer and tr00ps were dispatched to track down Cheyenne Indian bands that were leaving their reservation to hunt and send them back to their appropriate lands. He reached a group of Indians that were in fact on their lands (included Black Kettle). Black Kettle sent a grOup to talk with Custer openly Showing peace, and Custer killed them and proceeding to kill the rest of the village. \ \F/ Treaty of Fort F inney (1786): This treaty came about after the Revolution war. The Newly formed United States was in position to gather land that they speculated in the Ohio Valley. They did not bother to negotiate like the British had with the Indian Nations. Many Shawnee leaders did not want to accept the Americans terms but were talked into it. This led to many young warriors to become angry. Little Crow— (Taoyateduta), the Dakota Sioux Chief, took the lead in signing treaties selling Dakota land, Americans failed to deliver annuities and told the Dakota to eat grass, Little Crow agreed to lead his angry warrior into war in 1862, Dakota warriors killed more than 1,000 warriors, l,7oo Sioux marched to Fort Snelling and were confine by the army in a wooden stockade, 400 Indians put on trial for murder, 38 killed at Mankato, the largest public hangings in American history, many fled and joined the Lakota, he was shot while picking raspberries. Osc‘eola- 183 5-42, the Seminole Chief, they refused to move and in the Second Seminole, war fought the US to a standstill from their stronghold in the Everglades, HIST 353: Indigenous Peoples of North America Review for Exam II Spring 2005 Special Note: There is a slight difference between this exam’s format and the previous. Instead of having to answer 4 IDs for 40 points, you will answer 3 IDs worth 30 points. The point totals for part III have thus increased from 40 to 50; each response to the two selected quotes will be worth 25 points. This change has been made to give you more time to complete the exam. Part 1. Short Answer. You will be given five true and false questions and five multiple-choice questions. The questions will test you on your knowledge of key events, peoples, and concepts presented in lecture. (2 points each/20 points total) Part II. Identifications. There will be five of the following terms on your exam. Of those five you will pick three to identify and describe in about 5 sentences. Your answer should be about half a page in a blue book and tell me who, what, where, when, and why significant. (1 0 points each/30 points total) *i’ilSleolin Treaty of F ort Finney Debt Purchase 5“" Blue Jacket «1W pg? iii Tecumseh W, 39,; “Red Sticks” ,f Dragging Canoe 4”; is) " g" a?" Treaty of Greenville Egg .wTreaty of New Echota Indian Removal Act y. Worcester v. Georgia M Osceola ,i' John Ross :./--°Comanche «99""Lakota ,xRailroads _ Reservations W‘Stand Watie ,/Sand Creek” Little Crow Lawrie Tatum «Black Hills I Geronimo Part 111. Response to selected quotes. Two passages from what you have read will be put on the exam, and you will be asked to explain what the quotes are saying, connect the quotes to larger themes in the class by putting them into larger historical contexts. In other words, what do the quotes illustrate about indigenous peoples and the impact of colonialism. The more specific you can be the better. i.e. if you know the actual speaker/author of the passage then tell me, but even if you don’t, make specific references to events, peoples, places, etc. that you have learned about. Each answer should be no less than about a page in length. (25 points each/50 points total) Example. Write a response to the following quote. Tell me all that you know about the quote itselfi—who said it, when, where, and to whom, but more importantly how does the quote illustrate larger themes in indigenous history? Make reference to specific events discussed in class or in your readings. “Some of your good chiefs, or, as they are called, Missionaries, have proposed to send of their good people among us to change our habits, to make us work, and live like the white people. I will not tell a lie,. . .I love the manner in which we live, and think myself and warriors brave; spare me then, my Father, let me enjoy my country, and pursue the buffaloe,. . .We have yet plenty of buffaloe, beaver, deer, and other wild animals; we have also an abundance of horses. We have everything we want. We have plenty of land, you will keep your people off of it.” Instructions/Advice: Bring a blue book to class with you and turn it in to Brady when you arrive. Be in class on time because the exam will begin when class starts. Use your time wisely. I suggest spending no more than 5 minutes on part I, 20 minutes on part II, and 20 minutes on part III, leaving you 5 minutes to go over your answers. Begin studying now and ask us if you have any questions. Discussion sections on Friday, April 8th, will be devoted to reviewing for the exam. t I I’. I . g n .2 .14 J' i I 4-” t. \Q'J‘" “ vv' ‘ ' ' History 353 Exam II rejection of European ways and values (alcohol, religion, dress) among tribes of the Ohio Valley and Great Lakes. He proclaimed to have meat the Master of Life. Pontiac was a huge believer in Neolin’s prophecies. Leading warriors into battle . in one of the bloodiest rebellions his forces toppled seven British forts but the 0 Blue Jacket: In 1791 warriors of the northwestern Indian Confederacy, led by the Miami war chief Little Turtle and the Shawnee Blue Jacket, inflicted a smashing defeat on the United States, destroying an American army under General Arthur St. Clair, governor of the Northwest Territory. In the wake of that defeat the United States dispatched commissioners to meet with the Indians and negotiate a settlement, but the Americans would not agree to the Indian demand that the Ohio River remain the boundary to their lands. o Dragging Canoe: A young warrior of the Cherokees was against signing an agreement to have a buffer zone between colonist and the Indians. He did not see why they had to give of their home land to foreign invaders. So he joined a war belt and began raids on American settlements. This led the American settlers to march three armies into Indian terrority and bum 60 villages to the ground. After this the Cherokees were forced to sign a treaty giving up major portions of their lands. Dragging Canoe left the Cherokee Nation to relocate in Georgia where he joined the Muskogee Indian Nation and kept the battle against the Americans going. 0 Indian Removal Act: Passed by Congress in 1830, authorized the president to negotiate treaties of removal with all Indian tribes living east of the Mississippi. This spawned the Cherokee Nation to f1 ght the state of Georgia in the Sup Court trying to keep their lands. , 1.5:. * — .- 0 John Ross: The leader of the Anti- treaty party of the Cherokee Nation. He was 1/8 indian. His followers denounced the Treaty of New Echota and refused to move west with the other “Treaty Party” (led by two families Elias Boudinot and John Ridge). Soon the US. army moved in citing the treaty signed by the other Cherokee party but assumed all Cherokee people were to abide by it were forcefully removed from their lands. -.'U-" ’ . . 1. J i ' ‘ .) Knew, ' "" ’ " " RA (‘5’... L-‘fl'. f z "i r . ,_. W {ufimvdpr '-- x‘i,.fl"»' 9’ t.” _ - . Id 7’ grounds and reservations that were set aside for them. The first railroad that connected the West to the East was from Chicago to California. The Federal government would give up 181 million acres of land to the rail companies. Many of which failed as companies.\ 0 Sand Creek: The Southern Cheyenne Indians were not to go above the Arkansas River according to the Treat l_oft_.._Wise. However many of these groups were Vin-W M .' - traveling past this line to hunt for food. Commander Custer and troops were dispatched to track down Cheyenne Indian bands that were leaving their reservation to hunt and send them back to their appropriate lands. He reached a group of Indians that were in fact on their lands (included Black Kettle). Black Kettle sent a group to talk with Custer openly showing peace, and Custer killed them and proceeding to kill the rest of the village. Black Hills: Sacred lands of the Lakota Indian Nation. The Lakota were sent to live on lands in North and South Dakota according to the treaty offlFtLL‘araniie. These lands were hunting grounds, spiritual lands were young men would go to seek their “visions.” Gold was discovered in the Black Hills and many white fortune seekers would invade these lands. Like in many cases the white settlers would call for the Federal government to remove the Indians and allow them to mine for gold. Treaty of Fort Finney (17 86): This treaty came about after the Revolution war. The Newly formed United States was in position to gather land that they speculated in the Ohio Valley. They did not bother to negotiate like the British had with the Indian Nations. Many Shawnee leaders did not want to accept the Americans terms. This led the Shawnee to create a multi fascist leadership against the Americans. Debt Purchase: Was a policy that the Federal government would have its agents impose on the Indian Nations (Thomas Jefferson’s “Civilization Plan”). They would trade with the Indians driving them to become in debt to the Federal government making the only possible way for the Indians to repay their debt was by giving up their lands. Tecumseh: The brother of the famous Indian prophet Tenskwatawa. Tecumseh had much of the power with in his community (due to his high prestige gained in the Ohio Valley Wars) and began to spread the word of his brother’s prophecy to many people in the North and South. He would visit the Creek and the Muskogee teaching the people new dances to purify them selves from the white people. “Red Sticks”: (1811-1814) Muskogee/Creeks, Creeks divided, Mestizos had become wealthy and turned their backs on traditions, spoke many different languages, but many spoke Muskogee, Muskogee: world divided in 3rds- upper world— purity and light underworld- sacred power for fertility and healing, this world- keep power in balance to do proper rituals and ceremonies, Benjamin Hawkins tried to get them to take up white ways... stop hunting, women . domestic, mestizos only people who listened, by agreeing to give up land they turned their backs on the Muskogee, Creeks became more respected after rebellion, religion also changed after rebellion, more missionaries from the North, Presbyterian, Methodist, Baptist, 1820’s missionaries get some to convert. Treaty of Greenville: Shawnee leaders who had fought the Americans since before the Revolution signed the Treaty of Greenville in 1795, ceding most of Ohio to the United States. Shawnee resistance then passed to a younger generation and shifted west. Treaty of New Echota: 1836, signed without Cherokee council, Major Ridge “just signed my death certificate,” treaty went to senate for ratification, when senate debated did behind closed doors, ratified by 1 vote margin, 2/ 3rds majority gave Cherokee until end of 1837 to leave, those who followed John Ross refused it v ~ u- -:- v: = ~. '- ‘ ; ' '- 1.: - . v -- . . a. ’ ‘ - A . ‘ .- a m a 2-. )u.r.;m.«a-..-~ <5 " ‘c "t. ' “ M" if we I, . j ’H. ‘ w .. ‘5 t2..,) Kw!“ fi-txh, , -" '3; “v Q“ o. . iv. . . flu I“. v ~ .- ‘ . _ _ .Q - lb 2; ,' g; g" 'V I { h} 3' «5. 6L4 {9‘ “ JEJ- 3* «£1112 oi. to leave, 183 8- US Army came to force them to leave, forced them west, 183 8-39 all but a 1,000 forced West, many died. 0 Worcester v Georgia: Missionary from New England, Worcester would have pledged allegiance to Georgia, arrested, Cherokees talked him into suing, John Marshall ruled in favor of the Cherokees- could not extend law over Cherokee tribes, state to state relationship with the federal government, nullified Georgia Law, 1832, Cherokee Nation is a distinct community, occupying its own territory. 0 Osceola: J {p n w ,9 3s 5': .. g ' f” Y) 3t) n, TWA a - ".’ -.‘ ’ IE "- «he i ' a: .V 'f a K 5‘“ N (J K b ‘t M «k E .h“ {at ‘* k: k {$359K- { ‘v v f .v a *4; y b R, W i If _. is ’1 . {V i g wt ‘ k ,4? 5 i 3 . ._. tin—S \. 0' x. a w 3..., 3: g r i o. f i L fi ' k w rz. a .u‘ E a It V _ "W “:3! g t .7“ ., I x":‘- ‘; '3: - a '. .v ‘i I! “ [MAE-i fir. ‘ _. ‘I' "I*- :39 % b k \ ail. 1r...“ 1 'K._ Fr .1... g. g ’k ‘l ‘- 93; 'k £45?" 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History 353 _ _, 3 . .. ~ o Dawes Allotment Act (1887): a.k.a the General Allotment Act was a shift from x g;- reservation policy to the abolishment of reservations and allotted lands to individual Indians as private property. Henry Dawes, a major proponent of the " act believed that the Indians could not progress any further in assimilating into white America living under the traditional communal ideals of Indian society. _, The act was in place from 1887 to 1934. Like other promises made by the 73’ Federal government the one’ s offered in the original Dawes Act where whittled ‘ away. Overturned in 1934. o The president was authorized to assign allotments of 160 acres to heads of ; families, with lesser amounts to younger persons or orphans. i4 ~- 0 Indians were to select. their own lands, but if they failed to do so, the agent would make the selection for them. Reservations were to be surveyed and g I I ' f I-vr-— - - ._ ._ -A—-._._—._ ..._ . ‘ _- .,-‘—_‘ -. ___H__;__.' {rolls of tribal membegrpmpmd prior to allotment. o to hold title to the land in trust for 25 years, preventing its sale until allottees could learn to treat it as real estate. 0 All allottees and all Indians who abandoned their tribal ways and became O O O “crvrhzed” were to be granted Citizenship. 0 “Surplus” reservation lands could be sold to the public. Bursam Act (1906): Was to help with some of the problems associated with the Dawes Act. The Bursam Act allowed the Secretary of the Interior to end the trust trust period to be extended longer if competency level was not proved. 0 Ghost Dance: This dance is part of a new religious movement begging around the 18803. It called for its practitioners to abstain from alcohol, live in peace, and follow a prescribed ritual, including a dance in a circle called the Ghost Dance. A Paiute Indian named Wovoka was the prophet preaching the new religion. This movement startled many white people. Ultimately, the religion led to a massacre “ti , Dakota. 0 Curtis Act (1898): The “Five Civilized Tribes” in Indian Territory were originally excluded from the provisions of the Allotment Act. In 1889, Congress provided for allotment of the lands of all Indians in the area except for the five tribes. The Curtis Act of 1898 terminated the Indian overnrnents and allotment proceeded in the remainder of Indian Territory. Cowboy Hall of Fame. a Carlisle: A boarding school in Pennsylvania opened by Richard Henry Pratt. These schools were designed not only to educate the Indian students who attended but also to completely transform them. The boarding schools tried to provide of more than two hundred men, women, and children at Wounded Knee in South “The End of the Trail”: A sculpture of an Indian slumped over on his horse. It is said that it represents the “Vanishing Indian.” By James Fraser. It shows a native on a horse. It is an icon on other pieces of art work, setting sun always in the background, representing the “vanishing Indian” 1916, located in OKC in 9 f.‘ \ “ #yfiv students with the kind of skills that America deemed appropriate and even “'5. yu- " 9 .; .'.‘v-— ' , - .-r A A” “‘9‘. period before the 25 years was up if Indians could show their competencyllgyflelfi 4,, j. l was well enough to hold land in their name if competent. Also it allowed for the necessary for their survival and to remake them as individual citizens, not tribal members. 0 Major Crimes Act (1885): Gave the Federal government power to prosecute Indians who committed crimes on reservations. The crimes where rape, murder, hildir manslaughter, assault with intent to kill, arson, burglary, larceny against another _ Indian on a reservation. Maj or assault of Indian sovereignty. In US. v Kagama «r :"' I' 3 P -..--r the Supreme Court affirmed the constitutionality of the act by convicting an if; Indian man of murder of another Indian on the reservation. Previous to this act ' ‘ ‘ tribal government and laws where used to deal with crimes on reservations. .3; _. 0 Lone Wolf v Hitchcock: Lone Wolf sued Hitchcock Secretary of the Interior to stop the transfer of lands by a fraudulent agreement that blatantly contravened the Treaty of Medicine Lodge. In this case the Supreme Court declared that Congress If; had complete plenary authority over Indian affairs and could abro gate its own treaties. This was a major blow to the sovereignty of Indians, basically saying Congress could overpower old treaties that protected Indians. Kiowa land t fraudulent. . ' n 4:» «c.- - e. eatles. 30.1w. as. or ‘crs.: , -., . ~ O O ' a m . -- a— — . 2.9.- .-p;. _. _ g, g._ - -. ' ' . A i a . t . f . ‘ V 9 _ . . ‘ - ' v . :..c .. _ . _;%,_ . "I h I. U u "- “‘ S. .- t‘. l H 0 American Indian 1V ovement (AIM): The activism of Indian people against the“: y injustice they have received from the State and Federal governments. November 5' '3 n i“ 1957 the AIM would march on DC to protest and demand a return to treaty .. 1. "r p.- #Cr’ making and Nation to Nation relationships. There cries did not seem to be getting -"- .~ ' through; so they physically took over the Indian Bureau Affairs office. The Federal government came to a compromise with the Indians but it was menial only offering the Indians $66,000 to go home. 0 Indian Re-Organization Act: a.k.a. the Wheeler— Howard Act of 1934 put an " end to the allotment policy and gave power back to the Indian tribes. It was -. r drafted by John Collier and a team of lawyers. The new act promoted economic 5 development in Indian communities by establishing a revolving credit found; and . , E a it encouraged tribes to take back responsibility for running their own affairs. The forms of government that the tribes were invited and encouraged to establish and vote on were not their own traditional governments guided by clan or spiritual leaders; they were Amencanustyle representative governments and bureaucracres, and the Secretary of the Interior. 37%. .“l -1! 3...: 0 House Concurrent Resolution 108 (HCR 108): Was a list of tribes that congress wanted to terminate as tribes recognized by the Federal government. This proposal would have all their land divided up and no longer would exist as a sovereign nation. The tribes had to consent to this terminationand in the end only . .5 .r -’~ ‘ ’L n’ g“ . 'I y l ,3." 1' 12 tribes or 13,000 People would go that direction. '* we» -: -.: 0 US. v Wheeler: A Navajo man charged under Tribal law for contributing to .5, deliquesce of a minor and misconduct. Also charged under Federal law for rape. {if r” 5" o o a o . It IS not double Jeopardy because 1t only applies to someone under one sovere1gn natlon not two. Thls IS a Vlctory for Indians as a whole and loss for Wheeler. Powers of tribe: inherent powers of a limited sovereignty that has never been i ‘i ii i ii a vigil is v iv 3 r f m 5 ii iv a way u l all r " ‘- " .- "f :1. N 31-h” extinguished said Supreme Court, retain all. forms of sovereignty that congress has not taken away~ one was the right to run a casino. 0 Indian Self-Determination Act (1975): Allowed tribal governments to contract with the Federal government to receive aid and services that were previously only available from the BIA offices. They could get money for education (this area saw the most change), healthcare, and economic development. Also it allowed tribes to right grant proposals for money and other things. Tribes could take over old boarding schools, and run them how they would want, tribes could take over control of reservations, and they could write grants and other proposals to the government for money and other things. 0 Franz Boas: A cultural Anthropologist (Father of Cultural Anthropology). Boas was studying the people of the Pacific Northwest when he discovered that it was not biology that determined behavior but rather culture determined behavior. He taught at Colombia University. He also found that IQ is attributed to culture not biology. Tested le of white and black people from the north to white and black people from the south. He determined that black people from the north had higher le than white southerners. Culture- whole system of ideas, fork ways, and institutions in which people lived, it is something everyone has and it varies. Relative— there is not fixed way to live, not arranged in hierarchal scale. 0 Passamaquoddy v Morton: This tribe filed suite against the state of Massachusetts claiming that land that had been sold to the state was purchased under violation of the Indian Trade and Intercourse Act of 1790. This act declared that no transfers of Indian land were valid unless they had the approval of Congress, but none of the land sales that occurred after that date had been submitted for approval. a Wounded Knee Massacre: A Related to the Ghost Dance. People thought that they would be safe from the bullets if they had their special shirts on. It was said that “the shirts were like armor that could not be penetrated by the bullets of the white man.” South Dakota, 1973, it was a small white town near the pine Ridge reservation, standoff between AIM and the FB, Bad Heart Bull was killed by a white man, convicted of 2‘” degree murder, Lakota thought 15‘ degree was deserved, protest outside of the courthouse, Pine Ridge 1973 under the leadership of Dick Wilson, who was seen as a corrupt Lakota. He surrounded himself with police (goon squad) AIM protested against him. AIM took over Wounded Knee, and they were heavily armed. They were surrounded by the FBI and they shot a each other, 2 natives and 1 FBI were shot it was settled by the National Council of Churches. Natives with outstanding warrants would voluntarily surrender, the government would investigate Dick Wilson, use the Laramie treaty of 1867 as basis for US, Lakota relations, if this would have happened they would have gotten the Black hills, there was no evidence of corruption with Dick Wilson, became most police area between 1973-05. 0 Boarding Schools: These schools were thought of as a place where Indian children would learn the ways of the white man. However, many Indians suffered and were dramatically changed for the rest of their lives. At Haskell 100 students form 35 different tribes died. There was some good that came out of the schools. The La Flesche sisters attended one of these schools and later became prominent . rm _ a. " 1 ‘ ,‘ ‘ .- }"B . I'm# an”; “yup-«Inn'- WApnvw-u‘w inc-“iv cur-tr"- in. traditional native games were allowed without regulations or prohibition. 2. bingo was allowed in all states in which bingo was allowed to non-natives. 3. class 3 gambling casino style games, tribes that lived in class 3 states for non natives, they could operate own casinos, lotteryi class3. agreement with state on types of games, how many, law enforcement, how would be used and paid for, bring jobs in. o Fish-Ins: It began when Washington state violated a treaty signed by a tribe. The tribe gave up its lands but was still able to fish in traditional locations. Washington claimed jurisdiction on public law 280 and began arresting Indians who violated the fishing laws. However, the courts ruled that a state could not abro gate a treaty only congress thus allowing the tribe to continue fishing where the treaty originally allowed. Later this brought protests from non-Indiana fishers about their economic livelihood. However the Supreme Court ruled that the tribe was entitled to 50% of the states fish. 1950-1960 0 Mashantuckett Pequots: in 1636 they were almost destroyed by the puritians in the Pequot wars. Connecticut gave them a small reservation in 1660. petitioned Connecticut in 1982 for a settlement and received $900,000 to buy back land, this extended federal recognition, but Reagan vetoed the act. 1982- mashantuckett Pequot settlement act. Modified in 1983- did not receive federal recognition but did get money in order to gain federal recognition. Several stipulations: ~must be identified from historical to present time as Indians —had to reside in a specific area —forrn a tribal government in existence throughout time, exercising terminated them. The Pequots had there tradition carried on by two women who continued to live on reservation and influenced people to come back. They had a paper trail. Pequot became federally recognized through the BIA. 700 members. Own the Worlds largest casino. Frederick Jackson Turner- 1893, challenged notion The Frontier Americas who they are because of a lot of open free land, from East to West Americans have become special and unique, more democratic, and individualistic, left behind views of civilization, example poverty, Turner’s thesis- believed up to 1960’s question the term thesis. Indians briefly mentioned, used as part of the environment, Turner read into American history that the vanishing Indian is true. The “Vanishing Indian”- a concept that Indians were sick, died, or had moved away, but that was not true and there was an increase in population in the early 1800’s. The theory of “kill the Indian, Save the Man” came up. This theory allowed the Europeans to escape responsibility, and they said that the cause was due to alcohol. Shift destruction onto natives, but it was a myth more than a reality. The concept of the “vanishing Indian” all the way to the twentieth century- classic westerns~ grotesque, bad guys, broken English. Final Review: History 353 e Dawes Allotment Act (1887): aka the General Allotment Act was a shift from reservation policy to the abolishment of reservations and allotted lands to individual Indians as private property. Henry Dawes, a major proponent of the act believed that the lndians could not progress any further in assimilating into white America living under the traditional communal ideals of lndian society. The act was in place from 1887 to 1934. Like other promises made by the Federal government the one’s offered in the original Dawes Act where whittled away. 0 The president was authorized to assign allotments of 160 acres to heads of families, with lesser amounts to younger persons or orphans. 0 Indians were to select their own lands, but if they failed to do so, the agent would make the selection for them. Reservations were to be surveyed and rolls of tribal members prepared prior to allotment. o The government was to hold title to the land in trust for 25 years, preventing its sale until allottees could learn to treat it as real estate. 0 All allottees and all Indians who abandoned their tribal ways and became “civilized” were to be granted citizenship. o “Surplus” reservation lands could be sold to the public. a Bursam Act (1906): Was to help with some of the problems associated with the Dawes Act. The Bursam Act allowed the Secretary of the Interior to end the trust period before the 25 years was up if Indians could show their competency level was well enough to hold land in their name. Also it allowed for the trust period to be extended longer if competency level was not proved. 0 Ghost Dance: This dance is part of a new religious movement begging around the 18805. 11: called for its practitioners to abstain from alcohol, live in peace, and V ~§ o i 9 I o E 0 a o o 1 :i w Jr c. .. . . - 2 . r- . . . r, a 1; g m - ,7, A . "L .1" '° . ’9 9‘ - uz ‘ - - f‘; its} ant art. at: rt arm. in. .ri .rtrlt‘n tr r. an, an art.- ra. {“tt‘fiifl on . e» r“ too i. all. ..fld 5 int? ..". “-..' ..-- .~.'_ -‘.-‘ ~' '5 V..- ‘..- .N . -‘ ‘.- 1:. ..., ‘-:' ... .21. -..r 5.2-" Lui- .3. .. ‘fr ‘e‘iv--:-‘-'- 2 1"- .i. 2-. 5'. ".22!- _ -'u"- 3 .‘3. if)?“ L‘-"-.'- '.-'..-.z-'-'.-v"-’- .L L. ‘&=-' "VLa' _. .1. .c; Mr‘h '~'-.';" 3.13. in.- ..'n {it}: fix-f ‘L3v.'-- '. '-‘v.:~' tum?" l.- aI l1. 1;! ‘\_.«-'r‘ 4' .3. ‘...’ 2-./ w .-‘;--. "Iv' "-4 3‘- ‘“.vu‘ ~-—- " (r. 5'- A u ’9‘.-- .95 . GB Major Crimes Act (1885):. Gave the Federal government power to prosecute Indians who committed crimes on reservations. The crimes where rape, murder, manslaughter, assault with intent to kill, arson, or larceny against another Indian on a reservation. In US. v Kagama the Supreme Court affirmed the constitutionality of the act by convicting an Indian man of murder of another Indian on the reservation. Previous to this act tribal government and laws where used to deal with crimes on reservations. Lone Wolf v Hitchcock: Lone Wolf sued Hitchcock Secretary of the Interior to stop the transfer of lands by a fraudulent agreement that blatantly contravened the Treaty of Medicine Lodge. In this case the Supreme Court declared that Congress had complete plenary authority over Indian affairs and could abrogate its own treaties. This was a major blow to the sovereignty of Indians, basically saying Congress could overpower old treaties that protected Indians. American Indian Movement (AIM): The activism of Indian people against the injustice they have received from the State and Federal governments. November 1957 the AIM would march on DC to protest and demand a return to treaty making and Nation to Nation relationships. There cries did not seem to be getting through; so they physically took over the Indian Bureau Affairs office. The Federal government came to a compromise with the Indians but it was menial only offering the Indians $66,000 to go home. Indian Re-Organization Act: aka. the Wheeler- Howard Act of 1934 put an end to the allotment policy and gave power back to the Indian tribes. It was drafted by John Collier and a team of lawyers. The new act promoted economic development in Indian communities by establishing a revolving credit found; and it encouraged tribes to take back responsibility for running their own affairs. The forms of government that the tribes were invited and encouraged to establish and vote on were not their own traditional governments guided by clan or spiritual leaders; they were American-style representative governments and bureaucracies, created and operated under the supervision of the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) and the Secretary of the Interior. House Concurrent Resolution 108 (HCR 108): Was a list of tribes that congress wanted to terminate as tribes recognized by the Federal government. This proposal would have all their land divided up and no longer would exist as a sovereign nation. The tribes had to consent to this termination and in the end only 1.2 tribes or 13,000 people would go that direction. US. v Wheeler: A Navajo man charged under Tribal law for contributing to deliquesce of a minor and misconduct. Also charged under Federal law for rape. It is not double jeopardy because it only applies to someone under one sovereign nation not two. This is a victory for Indians as a whole and loss for Wheeler. Indian Self—Determination Act (1975): Allowed tribal governments to contract with the Federal government to receive aid and services that were previously only available from the IBA offices. They could no get money for education (this area saw the most change), healthcare, and economic development. Also it allowed tribes to right grant proposals for money and other things. Franz Boas: A cultural Anthropologist (Father of Cultural Anthropology). Boas was studying the people of the Pacific Northwest when he discovered that it was not biology that determined behavior but rather culture determined behavior. He taught at Colombia University. He also found that IQ is attributed to culture not biology. Tested IQs of white and black people from the north to white and black people from the south. He determined that black people from the north had higher IQs than white southerners. Passamaquoddy v Morton: This tribe filed suite against the state of Massachusetts claiming that land that had been sold to the state was purchased under violation of the Indian Trade and Intercourse Act of 1790. This act declared that no transfers of Indian land were valid unless they had the approval of Congress, but none of the land sales that occurred after that date had been submitted for approval. Wounded Knee Massacre: Related to the Ghost Dance. People thought that they would be safe from the bullets if they had their special. shirts on. It was said that “the shirts were like armor that could not be penetrated by the bullets of the white man.” Boarding Schools: These schools were thought of as a place where Indian children would learn the ways of the white man. However, many Indians suffered and were dramatically changed for the rest of their lives. At Haskell 100 students form 35 different tribes died. There was some good that came out of the schools. The La Flesche sisters attended one of these schools and later became prominent figures in Indian society. Francis became the first native anthropologist. Suzzette became a nurse. Susan went on to medical school becoming the first native physician. “Friends of the Indians”: A group of reformers who thought they knew what was best for Indian people. They pushed Congress to stop the treaty policy with the Indians. They ultimately wanted Indians to become full citizens of the US. Indian Claims Commission: From 1778 to 1881 (Congress ended treaty policy), the US. negotiated nearly four hundred treaties with Indian tribes. However, many of the provisions of these treaties were never implemented, and many tribes never received payment stipulated in treaties for lands they had ceded. In 1946 Congress established the Indian Claims Commission to review tribal grievances over treaty enforcement and management of resources and to resolve lingering disputes between Indian tribes and the US. government. Tribes were allowed five years in which to file grievances; they had to prove aboriginal title to the lands in question and. then bring suit for settlement. The commission was intened to be done in ten years. By the time the Indian Claims Commission ended its operations in 1978 it had settled 285 cases, and paid out more than $800 million in settlements. Leonard Peltier: After the Wounded Knee siege had come to an end. with AIM negotiating with the FBI to have the government look into their grievances and demands about the death and corruption of their reservation. One of the leaders of AIM, Means ran for tribal chairman, but the election was accompanied by arson, violence, intimidation, and murder attributed to tribal chair Richard Wilson’s men. Wilson won by a narrow margin, but conditions on Pine Ridge remained tense. In 1975, two FBI agents were murdered, a crime for which AIM activist Leonard Peltier was arrested, tried, convicted, and sentenced to double life ...
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This note was uploaded on 08/11/2008 for the course HIST 353 taught by Professor Earle during the Spring '08 term at Kansas.

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Hist 353, Studyguides - History 353 Indian removal Act of...

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