HSES269- Final Review

HSES269- Final Review - .‘f‘é‘ i x ‘1‘:12"...

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Unformatted text preview: .‘f‘é‘? i x. ‘1‘}:12" Z _ '45 3 j ' “13.43 if} -{.‘§.k:‘fl V L " ‘ 2.? it} 1‘.‘ 1 ‘ ii“; L ’ I 1.}; a. t 2:: . k 'y- " "’ 2 km J/fi‘ ‘5‘: i ' 3‘» m qx *~ «1 FINAL EXAM REVIEW v "’9'; r "‘i Ii: __ _., {if guy“ .- ,1". .. #3! -.-a I" if; ‘i‘v.;x_..“.-"b" ‘ X "‘1 Wh ' 1 ' ff a 1 1 1 ' 9 -- «as at is ‘1 1e pomt 0 ast an s ow g yco ys1s. V ~ ‘2’ r *- X '« I”? ' 'k- Q "a; .- ~ "it ‘9‘ ‘5’ ‘1. . J," What is the process ofthe scientific method? '1 Who described homebisiaisis? What is homeostasis?- Why does muscle contraction occur? How does the signal get from the brain to the muscle? What binds trOpinin? m 1;»; Why is ATP important? ~- What types of activities are the different muscle fiber types used for? What is a sarcomere? Can lactate cause muscle fatigue? How is ATP made in anaerobic conditions? What is the neuromuscular junction? 1 J . 2' What are the different parts of the Nervous system and what do they do (Central, peripheral, and so on). How does the electrical signal in the heart go (SA node, AV node. . ..) What factors affec 02’s binding affinity to hemoglobin? What factors are rate limiting to V02? Under what conditions is VE limiting? What changes at altitude? How is an Action Potential generated? MLSLMWhy are some axons myelinated? What makes up Q? types of muscle contraction? What does insulin do? What is the storage form of glucose? Why is epinephrine and norepinephrine important for the runners high? Which. is the good cholesterol and the bad? What makes one good and the other ”i bad? What is COPD and the common diseases? fit... “Exercise and oteoporosis 1 “if How doe the body deal with excess heat or cold? «‘3'3..w"‘:'.w 0. uses;- \ .’. What is the frank—starling law? Why are alveoli so important? 99;; What are satellite cells? \ Can exercise prevent atherosclerosis? What kind and how much? m Why is Q called the central limiter of V02? How is a saturated fat different from unsaturated fats? Why are mono-unsaturated and polyunsaturated fats ‘ good’ for you? Why should you combine carbohydrates and proteins after a workout if you’re an ‘ athlete? 3%... Whats EPO? What changes happen to HR and SV and Q with aging? able to calculate how many kcals in a given meal. i For a field to be “scientific” what attribute must it have? yB/QMParent disciples & subfields of exercise science? What does creatine do? won nobel prizes that we have talked about? Identify positive and negative feedback loops. jlfiéélD independent and dependent variables. y; When do you use a t-test? ANOVA? How do DNA and RNA work to allow cells to make a protein. What is it about bodfat that causes disease? What is the difference between simple and complex carbohydrates? What is RICE? When do you use heat? Cold? étjnghat is angio genesis? Whatever we cover in psychology is game for 3-4 questionsc i533 ‘ ~ 23 .' -~ ' ~33 .. . .1 . ' .\ N: _ ._ _ .t ..‘--:.j.~.'_:j _ r ' . s ' . . u I . I . . . _ . x I . . . 1. Past is produced, the end product is laCtate, and the disadvantage is that you-end up w/ lactate and no NADHs. Slow glycolysis is aerobic, includes oxygen, pyruvate is made, 2 ATP, 2 NADHs, the advantage is to convert pyruvate into CoA and into the Crebs Cycle, it makes 30-32 ATP. 2. The scientific method: observation, hypothesis, experiment, theory .‘ii/ . : o’. v t.» .w. A . aw“ ' {3 1.qu .. ‘H’qac 9“: - s. I lac-nfl O 'n . 3. Claude Bernard described homeostasis. Homeostasis "1s maintenance of‘an internal " ' state that is distinct from the external environment and is defended against changes. AJI—u M? .‘ '5‘); .--- a...“ . fi ~ . .‘ i. .. Q at : ..-~> 2 H .h 1...,” w -. «1.3,. L- 24.1”. u“:- ‘I -: E .. s .- I" -- . k“ " . v; “ t, «'5 : is ill} fifty: “w v 'J' 1:“: i, 4. Contraction of muscle Enables us to niove about and perform direct actions on the environment. Despite this great diversity among muscles, it appears that the basic mechanism of the contractile process is the same (the coupling of the splitting of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to the interaction of two proteins, myosin and actin). The brain sends signals, in the form of action. potentials, through the nervous system to the motor neuron that :innervates the muscle fiber. 5. TrOpininis bounded by calcium.-----‘: - .. . _ ., . 6. ATP is important because it’s our ability to perform work. . <1 . 7. Slow Twitch .. E _ writing, posture, fine motor control. Fast Twitch .gj ' z . J I a o r 0 LA {1‘ -cn‘%.’_* _. a“ 11.1“ h._: 2 War II}, I high anaerobic actrvrty -. .. a Fast Twitch f . “couch potato fibers" Used to move out of the way really fast. fifivri} VZYLQE: “ A sarcomere is a functional unit of muscle, holds actin in place, allows muscle - #5333 WC ,ipr p. gram Contraction to occur, and is a collection of myofilaments. -. “a. ' "..: 1.. ~ - “‘ . . . _.~,..-- > .~.‘-.- - ~‘ ‘ .- u _._..u. - Lactate can cause muscle fatigue *‘ttt’tt " l. 10. ATP is made in anaerobic conditions by creatine phosphate or lactic acid. 11. Neuromuscular junction is a synapse between a motor neuron and a muscle cell. 12. Central Nervous System: brain and spinal cord. Controls behavior Periphereal Nervous System: all other nerves and neurons that aren't in the CNS. PNS branches into Somatic and Autonomic Somatic: coordinating body moVements and recieving external stimuli .. Autonomic: sympathetic=respond to danger, stress, increase in heart beat and blood pressure, excitement. parasympathetic=slowing of heart, constriction of pupils, dialation of blood vessels, stimulation of digestive system. 13. The electrical signal in the heart goes from the SA node, toward the AV node, to AV bundle, into right and left bundle branches, into purkinje fibers, which interact with ventrililcal fibers. 14. Exercise intensity increases, body temp. increases, blood becomes more acidic, hemoglobin carries less 02 (loses affinity to bind to 02) 15. Factors that are rate limiting to V02 include cardiac output, heart rate max, stroke volume, AVO2. VB is not rate limiting, but it is trainable. .(w‘g’é: . 16. Pressure changes at altitude. 17. -AP originates in CNS, reaches axon of motor neuron -AP causes Ca to rush in -Ca causes acetylcholine vesicles in axon to fuse with membrane, releasing the acetylcholine into the synapse between the axon and the motor end plate of the muscle fiber through the T tube system -«~ I I ,_ . .’ ' J v I. . .l ¢ ' - o . f -. I’ I . I! . ‘ x I. ‘ I I, ._ a I, .,. I _ r, _ . . L, V , .J . h .‘ \ l -j- .I i "‘ .w.‘. '5} ' I . - ‘3’ "1 "Q‘ ['3 3‘" :I fit (5' >"(-' i L, kirk-I. ‘4'.) M K c. éJ1'; ‘4‘ " H ’ ¥ ‘ f "I 35 1 .. -- .~ . '12-; .. I“... a" -83.... 1,; u... - my 4.. 4- .c is» v w?» A“? . s - r .. e. , ~ ~.— := .~' .' h .- w» ' r “v. . ~ ‘ - .‘ fi?.fi\ :- - a" 'h‘;' .4 u H adding 1/" x a )J V w) w) ‘p K I . .. . I h I If] 9‘ J ‘ u ,I. . .. . ai‘ _I' §_ . q I; '. 3 a} . I 3.. rwv . .‘Q A. «I'L' it‘ 4‘ “ fiz"“” K5{.\'< I, Lg" ‘r‘ n J .. . . . -- -; ‘ 1,. . . ~- .' . x. .*. ‘ - - ‘ . . r“ . 1.x "" - ' “ ’ * c—s F? '1 ._ t 1!. that... ’ J ‘ 1“ -‘- f5. - x 9' '~' ,I’ 9’. r. 9" .J ' .3- L. \ :" T.” ;,"€V'§‘{‘ I. $va | I I - .3 - ' ~' *va v x cw” * c. a} ‘v " * “"3” ’w 1"“ t ’Z“ t A...» 1K 20. Three types of muscle contraction include skeletal, heart, and smooth. Concentric: weakest. shortening of the muscle (lifting a weight). uses lots of ATP Eccentric: strongest. causes the most damage. Doesn't use any ATP. (lengthening the muscle) Isometric: middlemost. doesn‘t result in any joint movement, but muscle is still contracting; doesn't use very much ATP. 21. Insulin allows the gluclose to be transferred from the bloodstream into the cell. The storage form of gluclose is carbs. 22. Epinephrine: binds beta receptors and makes CNS more sensetive. Ex: caffeine — you‘re tired from running, then all of the sudden you get a burst of energy; that's epinephrine Norepinephrine: causes arousal. released by Somatic Nervous Sys on to target tissues to increases their function in the face of increased activity A 4' . i t“. .-;, "31-h TF" 3'1 “a '- Ll. . #1 “t was». ‘t x» , t Jam- ww- ‘ a J- '4 «"v‘W" '% f 34w ‘ , ,i. . ‘ ,. "I \ ‘2. ‘6 .- - . . ‘ 2 S EF 8 d n:— 53d 1’ i \J I, R; ‘ fl: ' lav -.‘ 2'. '2 "J I ‘- 23. LDL is bad cholesterol because it can slowly build up in the inner walls of the arteries that feed the heart and brain. Together with other substances it can form plaque, a thick, hard deposit that can clog those arteries. HDL is good because a high level of it a I l . - . .~ K ' "J is - r, H. . can protect agalnst heart attaCk. ' t..,.,..h¢,.m.flf, '31,.f_;,t&3_¢,3 1;,»ng\Lm..§fi,fl,w_sm R :1...,..¢.».:v:,itm,a... 1....o..e..,,...~_.x.-.. - .» , W “mm” } ’..§t&.:;.;.,‘.3 L2 "wker 5:)»;A3‘vdi’x . A, a ‘ " i it . 5-" - r - , V" :':'.‘ ""i 9",? ‘3 ‘9: a; «it; i s»... was. direct- .3“ t 5 '7’ w ‘ “rim” 3 5: o a '3'") ’ a?” pub 3'11" Vii-h E‘Wilfifwt‘him r:i a 24. COPD (chronic obstructiVe pulmonary disease)includes lung diseases such as bronchitis, emphysema, and asthma. Individuals have trouble getting CO2 out. Airways become thicker and tough to get air in. . . .. .. , . Amman—A ._“ ‘ .__ “N "-s 25. Exercise decreases the risk of osteoporosis. Increasedrb’one mass‘tprevents fractures . . . . ~ =“”"“"‘“““ """"" Ma _. w and osteOporos1s. Exercrse stimulates thi bone growtht osteoblastsf ,: "3. H "m 4A_“ M ...-P h“ i i _ x- -. . . ) 5... ." ‘. fi.’ “a {SEE Q. -- "- A . . j "r '. is 3 ' . (W ‘ '1 \. '. 'xs" 9. v.» 26. The body deals with excess heat by sweating and excess cold by shivering'f ' . x . ’5- .”va . ' . -. I' s . -". h , _ R I 7‘} . . r. . f, “I ’u - . z ' \I - ..‘ " h v. . . L .. .. ' "' i ‘ f v =‘1v‘ ’~~ “‘1- Wt E“ “WA-1,2 h- "‘«L.- V '1. 5'19! ’i I- $3,}: ‘ 27. The frank-starling law: Venous return-the amount of blood omrng back to the heart (from superior/ inferior vena cava); the higher the venous return, the more preload, and the higher the SV. (low preloadzlow amount of venous return) 28. Alveoli are important for gas exchange. 29. Satellite cells are differentiated and only work in skeletal cells.‘ They get released and bind to damaged areaswwill grow into damaged areas and replace. In muscle repair, they are the primary reason for muscle hypertrophy. They can only grow in muscle tissue. 3 0. Exercise can prevent atherosclerosis. * * * * * 31. The higher V02 max post training is due to differences in cardiac output. Since there is little 02 left to be extracted from venous blood in maximal exercisejthe main mechanism to increase V02 max with training is due to increased CO. 32. Saturated and unsaturated fats differ in their melting points and energy content. Since an unsaturated fat contains féiif‘carbon-hydro gen bonds than a saturated fat with the same number of carbon atoms, unsaturated fats will yield slightly less energy during metabolism than sat. fats with the same number of carbon atoms. Saturated fats can freeze easily and are typically solid at room temp. Unsaturated fats become liquid at room temp. 33. Polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fats will help lower blood cholesterol levels. They decrease the risk for heart disease. 34. Athletes should consume some protein and carbohydrate after their workout in order to fuel muscle growth and replenish glycogen stores. 35. EPO is produced by the kidney, and is the hormone regulating red blood cell production. 36. HR and Q decline with age, SV increases.**** 3 7. igmc al/ g Carbs 1/ _= Protein . . . t J ' in." 3 35"“ ‘- 9 . x. ‘ 38. For a field to be “scientific,” it must have objectivity and evidence. 39. Parent disciplines of exercise science include chemistry, psychology, engineering, math, physiology, and biology. Subfields include exercise physiology, biomechanics, sports medicine, sports psychology, motor learning. 40. Creatine provides energy to your muscles for movements, especially quick and explosive movements. , 1 4".“ .. . it; c‘ ‘kgL‘fyufi‘ 41. Av Hill an'dyAugust ‘Krogh h _‘ ave won nobel prizes. ' ‘. ar(,-,__fi.~,_. 535-1{k y, ., tam emf, ij'".I.—~.'-§3.;%.~x..-s;;. 2.. ,;::=-,,f;w,; 'th3.; - 42. Positive feedback is when the body responds in a fashion that will increase the original stimulus response (child birth, breast feeding). Negative feedback is when the response of the body works in opposition to the initial stimulus (heater and AC). f 43. Independent variable is what is being manipui‘lat’e’xcil;‘~ theydep endent depends on“: tiiw independent, it is a measure. 44. T-tests are used to compare the mean of 2 groups the study with a small # of people. ANOVAS compare many groups over an entire time period; concerned with the whole effect, not just pre and post. I u ‘- i é .r’ y l. I’. .. 1 . -~ "i ti '9’ ‘3' "ii . I ..\ r F: ...- q .. ' x ‘ 32‘s -' - . .' . x . . . I ~ ~.....*.J‘:.1.M..w‘v<.;« WM»? r . ."..?’~ - ,a g, .4? [37 ' .. ,3. o o "5 ft *m l" /45. DNA tells the cells what protem to make; RNA 1ncludes messareger RNA (photocopy ,. ,3 _‘ . .. T *1" of the gene to tell the body what protein to make), transcription (to make a copy of I 51 1 ~ 21*. . ~ '5. ,g' u '4 9‘; )h-l '" 3’? fi‘igl""“) W’ I ’ "' ‘j‘ 1"" DNA—the DNA unwinds and RNA transcribeS), translation (take copy Of mRNA to til-631; "fa ~..,.-.' U}; 3.3 * make protem usmg ribosomes). if)th if): 2% MESA r “i'v’kjkfi-rii/i'é-v'tiskaaim g . I g. in} M ii i. {.cdei.‘3 ire,.~éfi~w'v’“} 7"" «N "" "‘iiw'i Muir yew-$241.42.. .¢-.«~..-'r~..:.. . . if? it. ,7337M N” I “sf” '_ “if . _ . 46. Fat has adipokmes. Fat cellsui‘ielease ad1pokiiies Wthh are 11nked to 1nflammation. These are linked to cancer, heart disease, diabetes, and stroke. 47. Simple carbohydrates include sugars (milk, fruit, and other sugars)=not as good for you. Complex carbohydrates include starches (veggies, grains, cereals, dried beans, peas)=good for health. 48. RICE means rest, ice, compress, elevate. 49. Use heat after the first 72 hours. Heat vasodilates and washes out chemical mediators. Use cold within the first 72 hours because it vasoconstricts (reduces blood flow; swelling and adema). 50. Angio genesis is a natural process in the body that involves the growth of new blood vessels. It can occur during coronary artery disease, peripheral artery disease and stroke when there's insufficient blood supply and oxygen to the tissues, a condition known as O C ISChemIa. 1.. "' I ' t , .- f i 1 . . a . J i it 1 L L affix L» 1 M ‘1'"; .' J'”-..I¢ A, ‘\ u ‘R v— . we a (V 'J i “bk” , L (4‘8" ’i ‘1 {.. in} h N“ J ‘ w h I‘ 1 § 3 NM“ Jib-'4 mummfimmuwaniufi—mfi E (lull 4 i ‘ z ‘2. mun b x [ {Ly-V) If, . > m it"! h..- “ r ~ A 9 tr ; . .,. . x a w r - w- 1,. y 2 '~ , u. 5" z .. l a 5;“ 1 “’ MIR“? 1 L" g ‘l. g - ‘* “ ‘ VM'WW-o-fl'w carpi-l" Mm" 1,7' l v £~""-=*‘§ ’4‘"; f d. z i . a,» .- l'i’ {Auk “Mi”? fie“‘°m’l I _‘ v F f. "R \ -.c.c.- in” It a. c .j to w a“ (i 0'“? 9.- r i 3 V. { I“. a" k m:- [‘1 a "if-f“... 0“ 9' ‘4. . ...
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HSES269- Final Review - .‘f‘é‘ i x ‘1‘:12"...

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