Chapter_12

Chapter_12 - Chapter 12 Composite Materials 12.1...

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1 Chapter 12 Composite Materials 12.1 Introduction 12.2 Classifications of composites 12.3 Fiber reinforced composite materials 12.4 Structural composites Chapter 12 ME 201: Materials Science, Z. Hao 1 12.5 Composites with different Matrix materials Introduction (1) ± Composite: defined as a material system , a mixture or combination of two or more micro or macroconstituents that differ in form and composition and do not form a solution. ± Properties of composite materials are superior to the properties of the individual components. ± Advantages : High-strength/light-weight, great ductility, low cost, environmentally resistant… ± Examples: Chapter 12 ME 201: Materials Science, Z. Hao 2 ¾ Natural composites: Wood, Bone ¾ Synthetic composites: concrete, asphalt, carbon-carbon composites Every material is composite at one or the other level.
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2 Introduction (2) Lightweight - low density Bk l i i t tiff Pole-vaulting Buckling resistance - stiffness - yield strength Chapter 12 ME 201: Materials Science, Z. Hao 3 Glass fiber web/epoxy Glass fiber rings Longitudinal carbon fibers/epoxy ± Matrix: ¾ Softer, more flexible and continuous part that surrounds other phases. ¾ Transfer stress to other phases Introduction (3) ¾ Protect other phases from environment ± Reinforcement (dispersed phase) : ¾ Stiffer, high strength part (particles or fibers are the most common). ¾ Enhances matrix properties Composition of composites: Chapter 12 ME 201: Materials Science, Z. Hao 4 Composition of composites: Matrix + Reinforcement
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3 Classifications (1) ± Matrix-based ¾ Metal-matrix composite ¾ Ceramic-matrix composite ¾ Polymer-matrix composite ± Reinforcement-based ¾ Particle reinforced composite ¾ Fiber reinforced composite Chapter 12 ME 201: Materials Science, Z. Hao 5 ¾ Structural composite Classifications (2) Reinforced-based: d particle >100nm d particle < 100nm Chapter 12 ME 201: Materials Science, Z. Hao 6
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4 Particle Reinforced Composites -Spheroidite steel matrix: ferrite ( α ) particles: cementite Classifications (3) (ductile) (Fe 3 C) (brittle) -WC/Co cemented carbide matrix: cobalt (ductile) particles: WC (brittle, hard) 60 μ m V m : 10-15vol% Chapter 12 ME 201: Materials Science, Z. Hao 7 7 -Automobile tires matrix: rubber (compliant) particles: C (stiffer) 10-15vol%! 600 μ m 0.75 μ m Fiber Reinforced Composites ± Three main types of synthetic fibers ± Matrix materials ± Fiber reinforced plastic materials ± Example on calculating percentages of matrix and fiber Chapter 12 ME 201: Materials Science, Z. Hao 8
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5 Glass Fibers ± Advantages: high strength-weight ratio , good Fiber : polycrystalline or amorphous, polymers or ceramics (polymer aramids, glass, carbon, boron, SiC…) temperature and corrosion resistance, good electrical insulation properties, and low cost. ± Two types: ± ‘E’ Glass: 52-56% SiO 2 , + 12-16% Al 2 O 3 , 16-25% CaO + 8-13% B 2 O 3 E = 72.3 GPa Chapter 12 ME 201: Materials Science, Z. Hao 9 ± ‘S” Glass: Used for military and aerospace application.
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Chapter_12 - Chapter 12 Composite Materials 12.1...

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