Chapter 4 Notes

Chapter 4 Notes - Chapter 4 Notes 1. Carbohydrates are made...

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Chapter 4 Notes 1. Carbohydrates are made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms. 2. These atoms form chemical bonds that follow the laws of nature. 3. The Simple Carbs 1. Monosaccharide’s are single sugars (most are hexoses) a. Glucose serves as the essential energy source, as is commonly known as blood sugar or dextrose. b. Fructose is the sweetest, occurs naturally in honey and fruits, and si added to man foods in the form of high fructose corn syrup. c. Galactose rarely occurs naturally as a single sugar. (GFG- remembering point). 4. Disaccharides are pairs of monosaccharides, one of which is always glucose. a. Condensation reactions link monosaccharides together. b. Hydrolysis reactions split molecules and commonly occur during digestion. c. Maltose consists of two glucose units. It is produced during the germination of seeds and fermentation. d. Fructose is fructose and glucose combined. It is refined from sugarcane and sugar beets, tastes sweet, and is readily available. e. Lactose is Galactose and glucose combined. It is found in milk and milk products. 5. Few (obigosaccharides) or many (polysaccharides) 6. Glycogen a. Storage form of glucose in the body. B. Provides a rapid release of energy when needed. C. Starches a. Storage form of glucose in plants. b. Found in grains, tubers, and legumes.
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Glycogen molecule contains hundreds of glucose units in highly branched chains. Each new glycogen molecule needs a special protein for the attachment of the first glucose. 8. The Complex Carbs A. Dietary fibers provide structure in plants, are very diverse, and cannot be broken down by human enzymes. a. Soluble fibers are viscous and can be digested by intestinal bacteria (this property is known as fermentability). These fibers are found in fruits and vegetables. b. Insoluble fibers are nonviscous and are not digested by intestinal bacteria. These fibers are found in grains and vegetables. 9. Fiber Sources a. Dietary fibers are found in plant foods. b. Functional fibers are health-benefiting fibers that are added to foods or supplements. c. Total fiber considers both dietary and functional fibers. A. Resistant starches escape digestion and found in legumes, raw potatoes, and unripe bananas. B. Phytic acid or phytate has a close association with fiber and binds some minerals. Digestion and Absorption of Carbs 1. Carbohydrate digestion a. In the mouth, the salivary enzyme amylase begins to hydrolyze starch and into short polysaccharides and maltose. b.
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Chapter 4 Notes - Chapter 4 Notes 1. Carbohydrates are made...

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