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Chapter 10 Notes

Chapter 10 Notes - Chapter 10 Notes The Water Soluble...

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Chapter 10 Notes- The Water Soluble Vitamins: B Vitamins and Vitamin C 1. Vitamins differ from carb, fat, and pro in structure, function, and food contents. 2. Vitamins are similar to the energy-yielding nutrients in that they are vital to life, organic and available from foods. 3. Both deficiencies and excesses of the vitamins can affect health. 4. Bioavailability is the rate and extent that a nutrient is absorbed and used. 5. Precursors, also known as provitamins, are consumed in an active form and become active vitamins in the body. 6. The organic nature of vitamins means they can be destroyed by exposure to light, oxidation, cooking, and storage. 7. There are methods used to minimize nutrient losses. A. Refrig. Fruits and veggies B. Store cut fruits and veggies in wrappers C. Clean veggies 8. Solubility and storage A. Water-soluble vitamins (B vitamins and vitamin C) are absorbed directly in to the blood and travel freely. a. Circulate freely b. Excreted in urine B. Fat soluble vitamins (Vit A, D, K, and E) are absorbed first in to the lymph, then the blood. a. Many require protein carriers. b. Stored in cells associated with fat. c. Less readily excreted 9. Toxicity A. Water soluble vitamins can reach toxic levels with supplement use. B. Fat sol vitamins are likely to reach toxic levels with supplement use. C. DRI committee has establish Tolerable Upper Level Intake levels for niacin, Vitamin B6, folate, choline, and vitamin C. 10. The B vitamins are very active in the body. Several of the B vitamins form part of the coenzymes that assist enzymes in the release of energy. 11. Other B vitamins participate in the metabolism and cell multiplication.
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12. Recommendations for the B vitamins come from RDA, AI, and TUI Levels. 13. There are deficiencies, toxicities, and food sources that are unique for each vitamin. 14. Thiamin is involved in energy metabolism as part of the coenzyme thiamin pyrophosphate (TTP). 15. Thiamin Recommendations (1998 RDA) A. RDA men: 1.2 mg/day B. RDA Woman: 1.1 mg/day 16. Thiamin Deficiency and Toxicity B. Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome is a severe deficiency that develops in those who abuse alcohol. C. Deficiency results in the disease beriberi. a. Wet beriberi presents with edema. b. Dry beriberi presents with muscle wasting. D. No reported toxicities. 17. Thiamin Food Sources A. Whole-grain, fortified or enriched grain products. B. Moderate amounts in all foods. C. Pork.
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