Chapter 11 Notes- Fat Soluble vitamins, A,D, E, K

Chapter 11 Notes- Fat Soluble vitamins, A,D, E, K - Chapter...

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Chapter 11 Notes- Fat-Soluble Vitamins: A, D, E, K. 1. Vitamin A and Beta-Carotene A. Also known as retinol, retinal, retinoic acid. B. Vitamin A is found in the body in compounds known as retinoids; retinol, retinal, and retinoic acid. C. These have functional roles in vision, healthy epithelial cells, and growth. D. Vitamin A deficiency is a major health problem in the world. E. Toxicity is often associated with abuse of supplements. F. Plant foods provide carotenoids, such as beta-carotene, some of which have vitamin A activity. G. Animal foods provide compounds that are easily converted to retinol. H. Retinol binding protein (RBP) allows Vitamin A to be transported throughout the body. 2. Roles in the body A. Vitamin A in Vision a. Helps to maintain the cornea. b. Conversion of light energy into nerve impulses at the retina. c. Rhodopsin is a light sensitive pigment of the retina that contains a protein called opsin. B. Vitamin A in protein synthesis and Cell Differentiation a. Through cell differentiation, Vitamin A allows cells to perform specific functions. b. Epithelial cells a. Epithelial tissues on the outside of the body form the skin. b. Epithelial tissues on the inside of the body form the mucous membranes. C. Vitamin maintains healthy cells in the mucous membranes. D. Without vitamin A, the normal structure of and function of the cells in the mucous membranes are impaired. E. Vitamin A in Reproduction and Growth a. Sperm development in men. b. Normal fetal development in women.
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c. Growth in children. d. Remodeling of the bone involves osteclasts, osteoblasts, and lysosomes. a. Osteoclasts are cells that destroy bone growth. b. Osteoblasts are cells that build bones. c. Lysosomes are sacs of degradative enzymes that destroy bones. F. Beta-Carotene as an antioxidant a. Beta-carotene helps protect the body from diseases, including cancer. 3. Vitamin A deficiency A. Because Vitamin A is stored in the body, it would take a year or more to develop a deficiency in the presence of inadequate intake. B. Infectious Diseases a. Impaired immunity correlates with Vitamin A deficiency in children. b. The goals of worldwide health organizations include Vitamin A supplementation. C. Night blindness
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Chapter 11 Notes- Fat Soluble vitamins, A,D, E, K - Chapter...

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