Ebio Exam 4 Notes

Ebio Exam 4 Notes - Ebio Exam 4 Notes 09/04/2008 13:55:00...

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Ebio Exam 4 Notes 09/04/2008 13:55:00 Chapter 51: Behavioral Ecology Wednesday, April 9, 2008 Overview Behavioral ecology involves studies of: o How behavior is controlled o How it develops, evolves, and contributes to survival and reproductive  success o How behavior can be used to solve problems in biological conservation  and disease ecology What is behavior? Behavior is part of animals phenotype What we observe o Animal’s muscular activity, as it chases its prey or raises a fin in  territorial display Less obvious… o Bird song-forcing air from lungs and shaping sound o Secretion of hormone to attract opposite sex Learning o Juvenile bird reproducing a song In short, everything an animal ** 2. proximate and ultimate causes of behavior two classes of scientific questions: a. proximate(how): what is the immediate stimulus and mechanism for the  behavior?
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o Q. how does day length influence breeding? o A. production and response to particular hormones Ultimate(why): evolutionary significance of behavior, how behavior contributes  to survival and reproduction o Q. why did natural selection favor this behavior and not another? o A. breeding is most successful in spring and early summer Ethology Discipline developed in mind-20 th  century Established theoretical foundations” Niko tinbergen(Netherlands); Karl von Frisch, Konrad Lorenz(Austria, noble  prize in 1973) How animals behave in their natural habitat o Basis for modern behavioral ecology o Focus on proximate mechanisms, but considered genetic links and  adaptive nature of behavior Early ethologists developed idea of a “fixed action pattern(FAP)” Sequence of unlearned behaviors that are unchangeable Once initiated,d usually carried to completion Triggered by an external sensory stimulus(“sign stimulus”) Examples: territorial behavior in male stickleback fish Feeding behavior by gulls Classic example of sign stimuli and FAP Male stickleback fish(Niko tinbergen) o Attacks other males that invade territory
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o Sign stimulus for attack behavior is red underside of an intruder Proximate cause of behavior o Red belly acts as sign stimulus that releases aggression Ultimate cause of behavior o By chasing away other males, decrease chance that eggs laid in his  nesting territory will be fertilized by another male o Female lay eggs in the nest that the male prepared. The male than  drives her from the nest and fertilizes the eggs.
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Ebio Exam 4 Notes - Ebio Exam 4 Notes 09/04/2008 13:55:00...

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