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Prin_Geo_reviewer_ipad - GEOLOGY the science of the Earth...

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GEOLOGY – the science of the Earth, an organized body on which we live Main thrust of geology : To understand the changes that takes place in and on earth, and the reasons for those changes . Geology helps us unlock the mysteries of our environment. The earth, at work for billions of years, has distributed material into localized concentrations that humans can mine or extract . By learning how the earth works and how different kinds of substances are distributed and why, we can intelligently search for metals, sources of energy (e.g., coal and petroleum) and gems A clear understanding of the earth processes allow geologists to be among the leading caretakers of the environment. Conversely, geologists have a direct role in ensuring people’s safety and well-being and safety from natural processes (e.g., earthquakes, volcanic eruption, tsunami). Fields of geology 1) Petrology – study of rocks 2) Mineralogy - study of minerals 3) Geochemistry – application of chemistry to geological studies 4) Geophysics 5) Hydrogeology – groundwater exploration and assessment 6) Petroleum geology 7) Engineering geology 8) Seismology –study of earthquakes 9) Volcanology 10) Environmental geology And many more!!! .... Principle of Uniformitarianism (The birth of modern geology) James Hutton (1726-1797 ) – Scottish medical man, farmer, geologist, the “father of modern geology) In early Christendom, geologic events were placed within a bibilical chronology, and catastrophic happenings were blamed for features of the landscape. When rocks several thousand meters above sea level seemed to have been formed of sediment deposited in deep waters, the explanation was that worldwide inundation had simply drowned all the earth’s mountains in a matter of days” Hutton realized that geologic features could be explained through present day-processes. The time required for these processes to take place had to be incredibly long. He upset conventional thinking (the world was believed to be less than 6,000 years old) by writing in 1788, “We find no sign of a beginning no prospect of an end”. Hutton’s ideas were relatively unnoticed until, Charles Lyell, in his Principles of Geology book referred to his idea which he referred to as the Principle of Uniformitarianism. The physical processes operating today to modify the earth’s surface also operated in the geologic past—which is another way of saying that the laws of nature are unchanging. More succinctly, the principle states that “The Present is the Key to the Past”. The Big Bang Theory - contends that the Universe originated from a cosmic explosion (origin unknown) that hurled matter in all directions 15 and 20 billion years ago at incredible speeds began to cool and condense into the first stars and galaxies.
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