Geomorphology_reviewer_Fundamental Concepts

Geomorphology_reviewer_Fundamental Concepts - REVIEWER ON...

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REVIEWER ON GEOMORPHOLOGY FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTS 1. The same physical processes and laws that operate today operated throughout geologic time although not necessarily always with the same intensity as now. - also known as the principle of uniformitarianism, “the present is the key to the past” 2. Geologic structure is a dominant control factor in the evolution of land forms and is reflected in them. 3. To a large degree the earth’s surface possesses relief because the geomorphic processes operate at differentiated rate. 4. Geomorphic processes leave their distinctive imprint upon land forms, and each geomorphic process develops its own characteristic assemblage of land forms. 5. As the different erosional agents act upon the earth’s surface there is produced an orderly sequence of land forms. 6. Complexity of geomorphic evolution is more common than simplicity. Classification of Landscape: a) simple products of single dominant geomorphic process b) compound two or more geomorphic processes have played major roles in the development of the existing topography c) monocyclic bear the imprint of only one cycle of erosion d) multicyclic more than one cycle of erosion e) exhumed or resurrected formed during some past period of geologic time, then buried beneath a cover mass of igneous or sedimentary origin, then still later exposed through removal of the cover 7. Little of the earth’s topography is older than Tertiary and most of it no older than Pleistocene. 8. Proper interpretation of present-day landscapes is impossible without a full appreciation of the manifold influences of the geologic and climatic changes during Pleistocene. 9. An appreciation of world climates is necessary to a proper understanding of the varying importance of the different geomorphic processes. 10. Geomorphology, although concerned primarily with present-day landscapes, attains its maximum usefulness by historical extension. GEOMORPHIC PROCESSES A. Epigene or exogenetic processes – originated outside the earth’s crust a. Gradation – processes which tend to bring the surface of the lithosphere to a common level. Two (2) categories of gradation: 1. degradation – those which level down 2. aggradation – those which level up Three (3) distinct degradational processes: 1. weathering – disintegration or decomposition of rock in place 2. mass-wasting – involves the bulk transfer of masses of rock debris down slopes under the direct influence of gravity 3. erosion – comprehensive term applied to the various ways by which the mobile agencies obtain and move rock debris Agents of erosion: 1. running water 2. ground water 3. waves, currents, tides and tsunami 4. wind 1 General Reviewer_Geomorphology_CVMasangkay_BS Geology_Adamson University 200814332
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5. glaciers Agents of Aggradation: 1 running water 2 ground water 3 waves, currents, tides and tsunami 4 wind 5 glaciers B. Hypogene or endogenetic processes – originated within the earth’s crust.
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  • Spring '16
  • Reviewer_Geomorphology_CVMasangkay_BS Geology_Adamson University, General Reviewer_Geomorphology_CVMasangkay_BS Geology_Adamson, Geology_Adamson University

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