Unformatted text preview: Cognitive Development
Piaget and Beyond Piaget General concepts Schema Assimilation and Accommodation Cognitive Disequilibrium Adaptation Sensorimotor Stage (ages birth-2 yrs) Six distinct sub-stages Child has the ability to organize and coordinate sensations with physical movement Non-symbolic thought (until near the end) Object permanence develops Sensorimotor Stage QuickTimeL and a Sorenson Video 3 decompressor are needed to see this picture. General progression during the Sensorimotor Period At the beginning (<1 month), infant has little more than reflexive motor patterns or rudimentary schemes By the end (2 years), child has complex sensorimotor patterns and uses symbols The Six Sensorimotor Substages
Substage 1- Exercising reflexes 2- Developing schemes 3- Discovering procedures 4- Intentional behavior 5- Novelty and exploration 6- Mental representation Ages (mos) 0-1 1-4 4-8 8-12 12-18 18-24 Exercising reflexes 0-1 months AKA "simple reflexes" Basic means of coordinating sensation and action is through reflexive behaviors, which the infant has at birth Gradually, the infant starts to perform behaviors that look like reflexes WITHOUT triggering stimuli Central idea: infant is initiating action even in the first month Developing schemes 1-4 months AKA first habits, "primary circular reactions" The infant learns to coordinate sensation and types of schemes For example, the infant might exercise the sucking scheme when NO bottle is present Primary circular reaction is a schema based on the infant's attempt to reproduce a pleasurable experience that initially occurred by chance Important: the child's own body is the center; little pull from the environment Discovering procedures 4-8 months AKA Secondary circular reactions The infant becomes more object oriented or focused on the outer world Moves beyond a preoccupation with the self The infant imitates other people's simple actions; e.g., adult baby talk, some physical gestures Imitations are limited to actions the infant can already produce Actions lack intention and goal-directed quality Intentional behavior 8-12 months AKA Coordination of secondary circular reactions Changes in coordination of schemes and intentionality Infants readily combine previously-learned schemes in a coordinated way. Example: they will visually inspect and grasp an object simultaneously Intentional behavior 8-12 months Intentionality emerges Working definition: The separation of means and goals in accomplishing simple feats For example, infants may manipulate a stick to bring an object closer to them Novelty and exploration 12-18 months AKA Tertiary circular reactions Infants become intrigued by the variety of properties that objects possess and by the many things they can make happen to (with objects) Example: you can make a block spin, fall, hit another object, slide across the floor For Piaget, this stage marks the beginning of true curiosity and novelty exploration Mental representation 18-24 months AKA internalization of schemas The infant's mental functioning shifts from a purely sensorimotor plane to a symbolic plane The infant starts to use SYMBOLS... internalized sensory images or words that represent events Mental representation 18-24 months Primitive symbols enable the infant to think about concrete events without directly perceiving or acting upon them Also, symbols allow infants to transform events Classic example: Piaget's daughter and matchbox Object Permanence Piaget's term for a key accomplishment during infancy: understanding that objects and events continue to exist even when they cannot be directly seen, heard or touched Object Permanence Object permanence in usually studied by watching an infant's reaction when an interesting object or event disappears If the infant shows no reaction = they believe the object doesn't exist (e.g., @ 5 months). But if they show surprise and search behavior, they've got it (e.g., @ 8 months) Object Permanence If life didn't exist... Note that without object permanence, life would be very different--we couldn't distinguish between ourselves and the outer world. Thought might be chaotic, unpredictable, disorganized. Hence, life is not that orderly for young infants, a la Piaget... "A NOT B" error Infant facing experimenter, two little blankets and an object in front of them Experimenter hides object under blanket 1, AND baby looks for it under blanket 1 (several times) Experimenter hides object under blanket 2 (in full view of the baby) AND A NOT B (continued) ...The baby looks for it under blanket 1!! This starts to disappear at around 8 months. BUT WHY? Piaget said--The infant's incomplete object concept leads to this error, in large part because the sensorimotor SCHEMA of searching under blanket 1 More recent explanations disagree Object Permanence- may occur by 3months A NOT B- May be memory related (8-12 month olds less likely to make the error when there is no delay after hiding) Frontal cortex issues (Adele Diamond) Reach vs. look Maybe they KNOW the answer but can't act on it? Inability to inhibit pre-potent responses Sensorimotor to Preoperational Stage Crowning achievement of Sensorimotor stage= emergence of symbol use Preoperational Stage (2- to 7-years-old) Increased sophistication of symbol use Pretend play and friends Refer to objects with words Internal problem solving Deferred imitation Substages: Ages 2-4 Ages 4-7 Symbolic function Intuitive thought Preoperational Stage QuickTimek and a Sorenson Video 3 decompressor are needed to see this picture. What are operations?
Internalized sets of actions Highly organized, rule and logic based Allow children to do mentally what they had previously done physically (e.g., pouring water) Rudimentary in pre-operations, literal in concrete operations, advanced in formal operations Conservation Properties of objects do not always vary with change Centration versus decentration Appearance as reality Reversibility Transformational thought Static thought Decalage Unevenness in the rate at which a child masters tasks; e.g., conservation Other issues Egocentrism- world from own perspective If I know something so MUST you
QuickTimeI and a MS-MPEG4v1 (MP41) decompressor are needed to see this picture. Classification- parts are included in the whole More issues Perspective Taking Because the child is fundamentally egocentric, she can't take the viewpoint of another person Zachy, 4 yrs. on telephone Dad: Zachy, I have something exciting to tell you. Zachy: What? Dad: I met Tom Brady today. Zachy: Well, was he wearing a New England Patriots Jersey? No. Zachy: Well, was he wearing a number 12? Dad: No. Zachy: Well, why did you know it was him? Animism Appears primarily during substage 1 Belief that inanimate objects have "lifelike" or human qualities and are capable of action Failure to distinguish human vs. nonhuman perspectives Animism "The tree pushed the leaf off and made it fall down." "The cloud is lonely by itself in the sky." "That loud truck is very angry!" "A stick feels fire because it get burnt." What does it mean to be alive? 4-6 yrs., life = activity Sun is alive because it gives light 6-8 years Stone is alive because it moves 8 years +, life = self-propelled activity, plant life Bike is not alive, beetle is alive Concrete Operations QuickTime and a Sorenson Video 3 decompressor are needed to see this picture. Piaget's Concrete Child 7-12 years old Can use operations, mentally reverse action Shows conservation skills (Defining feature.) Reasons logically in concrete circumstances No abstract thought Improved classification skills Some of the kids in your class are friendly and some are not friendly. Some are boys and some are girls. Divide the kids in your class according to whether they are friendly and whether they are boys or girls. Preoperational kids DON'T categorize along 2 dimensions: Friendly boys Friendly girls Unfriendly boys Unfriendly girls Preoperational vs. Concrete Operational Child QuickTime< and a MS-MPEG4v2 (MP42) decompressor are needed to see this picture. QuickTime< and a MS-MPEG4v2 (MP42) decompressor are needed to see this picture. Recent views on Preoperational and Concrete Operational Contrast With modification or simplification Pre-op children may be Less egocentric Conservers (as young as 3!) Better at classification Poor performance a result of memory or verbal abilities Formal Operations (12-...-yearsold) Abstract - Can solve equations Idealistic - "What is possible?" A perfect world and the generation gap Hypothetic-deductive reasoning Advent of scientific thinking Propositional Thought Poker chip green or red? Either-or, is and is not Comprehension Monitoring Evaluate understanding and adjust behavior accordingly What's the answer to this question? Premise 1: If Susan hits a tambourine, then she will make noise Premise 2: Suppose that Susan does not hit a tambourine Question: Did Susan make a noise? Try this....
Party Problem 4 foods at a party, each person has something different and no one has nothing, how many possible people are at the party? The Answer.... 1(1) 2(2) 3(3) 4(4) 1,2 (5) 1,3(6) 1,4(7) 2,4(8) 1,2,3(9) 1,2,4 (10) 1,3,4 (11) 2,3(12) 3,4(13) 2,3,4(14) 1234(15) Formal Operations QuickTime< and a Sorenson Video 3 decompressor are needed to see this picture. Issues in Formal Operation Adolescent Egocentrism Others are as interested in as much as you Personal uniqueness Imaginary Audience All others are focused on the adolescent Associated with attention-getting behavior, the desire to be noticed and "on stage"...and the reverse... Personal Fable A sense that "I am a totally unique person and NOBODY UNDERSTANDS how I feel." Stories about the self are filled with fantasy QuickTime: and a QuickDraw decompressor are needed to see this picture. QuickTime: and a MS-MPEG4v1 (MP41) decompressor are needed to see this picture. Imaginary audience and personal fable are brought on by... The ability to think hypothetically (formal operational thought) and the ability to anticipate the perspective/reaction of others (perspective taking) to imagined circumstances. General issues with Piaget Underestimated younger child, overestimated older child But age was not his main concern Competence versus performance Stage theory Systematic and irregular asynchrony- progress to conservation is both predictable and noisy Universal development with focus on individual Vygotsky QuickTime and a Sorenson Video 3 decompressor are needed to see this picture. The Sociocultural view Culture Relativism Social, cultural, and historical context must be recognized Development occurs through interactions with "expert" Learning precedes development Information Processing Agree with Piaget that children are active in environment, but without the single, unified theory Mind has three basic parts Sensory register, working memory, long-term memory Central conceptual structures Network of concepts and relations that permit wide range of thought Usefulness of I-P model Metacognition/ Theory of Mind Thinking about thinking Ability to reason and increase in knowledge are a result of specific experiences that require individual to compare theory and evidence and reflect on their thinking I-P and horizontal decalage Cognitive schemes become more automatic with practice requiring less demand on working memory and attention, form CCS Effects of task experience Model can breakdown components of cognition, but cannot put them back together as a comprehensive theory very well Thanks to Piaget The child is an active, self-motivated agent Equilibration model was the first attempting to EXPLAIN, not just describe development Many useful concepts with a relatively accurate perspective on how children at different ages think. Of course, not perfect Extension and Influence Piaget's influence extended into other fields, including social and emotional development and education (possibly most important) Readiness Teach slightly above level to allow for assimilation Motivated by provoking disequilibrium Order to teach material Piaget asked important questions that inspired thousands of other researchers in his wake and even whole areas of psychology Do not read... Chapter 5- structure of the brain (152-153), studying the brain (154-155), Factors that affect growth and maturation (160-162) Chapter 6- Vestibular Sensitivity (175-176), Visual Relations (184-185), objects and properties (187-191) Chapter 7, 8, 9- READ EVERY PAGE ASSIGNED IN THE SYLLABUS!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! ...
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- Spring '08
- Psychology, Theory of cognitive development, circular reactions, decompressor, Sorenson Video