History and Theory

History and Theory - Child Psychology History and Theories...

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Child Psychology History and Theories of Child Development
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What is Developmental/Child Psychology? Text: changes in behavior and abilities that occur as development proceeds Let’s add to that… Scientific study of age-related changes Child Psychology is devoted to identifying and explaining the continuities and changes that individual display from conception to adolescents
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Ancient Greece and Rome (600 BC - AD 400) Severe punishment was the norm Young children were used for slave labor Infanticide was acceptable (until 14 century A.D.) Sexual exploitation common
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Medieval and Renaissance Times (12th-17th Centuries) Influence of Roman Catholic Church Emphasis on the innocence and holiness of the newborn child Children viewed as more helpless than previously, hence cared for but not coddled Foundling homes begun Began work around 7 First grammar schools, 16th century Europe First book on pediatrics, Thomas Phyre
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Reformation and Calvinism (16th Century) Departure of numerous groups from the Roman Catholic Church changed the common view on child rearing Calvin (and Thomas Hobbes) emphasized the concept of original sin Argued for the importance of education to raise moral and well-adjusted children
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Change in primary role of the family (16th-17th Century) As production of goods shifted to outside the home, family went from primarily ensuring mutual economic survival to NURTURING children Closeness and emotional attachment between parent and child increasingly viewed as normal and important.
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John Locke (1632-1704) An Essay Concerning Human Understanding (1690) described acquisition of human knowledge Key idea The newborn’s mind is a “tabula rasa” upon which perceptual experiences are imprinted Empiricism Because the mind is originally a blank slate, environmental experiences shape the individual
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Thus, Empiricism a la Locke Assigned a crucial role to the child’s experience Required that early experience prepare the child for adulthood in society Asked parents and educators to find a balance between over-indulgence and over- restriction
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Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712- 1778) Emile (1762) laid out perspective on child rearing in a novel Key idea: Children are born with knowledge and ideas that unfold naturally as they age in any environment The child as noble savage; in need of gentle guidance to bring out natural goodness and pure instincts
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Nativism (a la Rousseau, a French Romantic) Asserted that children’s development results primarily from inborn processes that guide the emergence of behaviors in a predictable manner Predicted that the same behaviors will emerge no matter what the environment,
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This note was uploaded on 09/09/2008 for the course PSY 210 taught by Professor Skowronek during the Spring '08 term at Tampa.

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History and Theory - Child Psychology History and Theories...

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