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Prenatal Development

Prenatal Development - Prenatal Development Process Dangers...

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Unformatted text preview: Prenatal Development Process Dangers Why have children? What are some advantages to having children? Some disadvantages? How many children is ideal? Common Answers Cowan & Cowan, 2000 Advantages Disadvantages Giving and receiving warmth and affection Experiencing the stimulation and fun that children add to life Being accepted as a responsible and mature member of society Having someone carry on after one's death Sense of accomplishment and creativity from helping child grow Having offspring who help with work or income Loss of freedom Financial strain Familywork conflict Interference with mother's career Worries about health, safety, and wellbeing Raising a child in a world of crime, war, and pollution Reduced spousal relationship Loss of privacy Fear of child turning out poorly, but not fault of parent Prenatal Development Duration approximately 37 38 weeks Germinal stage Embryonic stage Fetal stage Period of the Zygote QuickTimec and a MS-MPEG4v1 (MP41) decompressor are needed to see this picture. Germinal Stage Conception to 2 weeks Zygote fertilized egg becomes a mass of cells, which travels down fallopian tube to uterine cavity, implants in the uterine wall (around 67th day) Germ (Embryonic) Disc Trophoblast Cluster of cells in middle of zygote Protective covering and nourishment Placenta and Amniotic Sac Amniotic Sac Placenta Forms out of trophoblasts Watertight, fluidfilled membrane; cushion and temperature regulation Forms out of villi from the chorion Structure that allows oxygen and nutrients to pass into the fetus from the mother's bloodstream and bodily wastes to pass out to the mother Embryonic Stage 3 weeks to 8 weeks Layers of the Embryo Now called Embryo Most vital organs and bodily systems Ectoderm, Mesoderm, endoderm begin to form; this is the greatest period of vulnerability. Embryo begins to look human, grows from around a in to 1 in., and weighs oz. Fetal Stage 9 weeks to birth Vernix Now called Fetus; grows from around 3 in. 1oz. to 19 21 in. 7 8 lbs Protects the body while in the amnion Lanugo Age of viability Time at which a baby can survive in the event of premature birth, around 22 26 weeks low % of survival % of survival increases in later weeks Major obstacles: air sacs, digestion, temperature regulation Baby can be born around 35 weeks with almost 100% survival. Fetal Activity QuickTimed and a Sorenson Video 3 decompressor are needed to see this picture. Fetal Temperament? DiPietro et al., 1996 Measure fetal activity periodically from 20 weeks to birth and then at 3 and 6 months after birth The more active the fetus, the more the infant was: Fussy Less adaptable Irregular Active Woken during the night Teratogens Defined Substances that harm embryo and fetus Effects of: Drugs Environment Other influences Examples of drug teratogens Alcohol Nicotine Fetal alcohol syndrome: facial and cranial deformation, reduced visual acuity, mental retardation, cognitive deficits, heart damage Retarded growth, possible cognitive impairments Lower birth weight, less motor control Lower birth weight, decreased muscle tone Marijuana Caffeine More drug teratogens Amphetamines (Meth and Dextro) Barbiturates Aspirin Premature birth, stillbirth, irritability, poor feeding Lethargic infant, anoxia, retarded growth, malformed heart, face, and limbs Intelligence deficits, attention deficits, and motor skill impairment Examples of Environmental teratogens Mental retardation Mental retardation, malformed limbs Retarded growth, leukemia, mental retardation Lead Zinc X rays Other examples of teratogens Maternal malnutrition Vitamins increases birth complications and neurological disorders; stunts prenatal growth, underweight infant Too little: spinal bifida, anencephaly, and central nervous system deficits Too much: cleft palate, brain damage, and a malformed heart. Accutane (derived from Vitamin and used for acne) Malformed eyes, limbs, heart, and CNS Psychological Factors that may effect pregnancy Newborn irritability, feeding and sleeping problems, cleft palate, heart defects, and premature birth Stress May alter efforts to maintain nutrition and health care and have ramifications for child rearing Depression Some myths about pregnancy Eat three healthy meals a day You are eating for TWO people Drink decaf only Cut out cheese Should eat 6 to 7 small meals every few hours You really only need to increase diet by about 200 calories One small cup of coffee is fine, 23 may produce miscarriage Only cut out UNpasteurized cheese After the 1st trimester, in small quantities Manicures and hair dye are out My cat can cause problems to my fetus Very unlikely although cat liter may (Toxoplasmosis) Review all slides Class is meant to complement and extend on the textbook, so...read the textbook sections one at a time matched with class notes/slides Learn the facts, be able to apply them AND also connect them What NOT to read... Hooray Exams! Chapter 1 Darwin (p. 6), Freud (pp. 1012), UCS, UCR, CS, and CR of classical conditioning (p. 27), Evolutionary Developmental Psychology (pp. 3738) Chapter 2 Case Studies (p. 61) Chapter 4 Genetic Counseling (p. 120) and Treatment/Ethical Consideration (pp. 122124) ...
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