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Unformatted text preview: Please enter your answers directly on this MS Word document. Save the document as LastName_FirstName.doc MINERAL RESOURCES, ECONOMICS AND THE ENVIRONMENT EXERCISE 1 ­ MINERAL CONSUMPTION AND ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS NOTE: You must upload your completed assignment no later than 24 hours before your Discussion section meets next week in order to receive any credit for the assignment. In this exercise, you will look at some data to judge just how much we each depend on mineral raw materials and therefore how much we, as individuals, contribute to environmental problems related to mineral production. One of the best sources of information on mineral production and consumption is the U.S. Geological Survey, which has a Mineral Information home page at: http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/commodity/ Go to that webpage and select the appropriate commodity from the list shown below and then go to the Mineral Commodity Summary for the most recent year (should be 2016 with data through December 31, 2015) that is available. The file will open as a PDF. Please use the Mineral Commodity Summaries to obtain the information listed below for the following mineral commodities (make sure you include the units): U.S. Consumption World Prod. World Reserves Iron ore ​39.4 ​ 3,320 190,000​ **units in millions of metric tons Salt ​ 69,500 273,000 Oceans contain an inexhaustible supply **thousand metric tons Phosphate ​ 28,300 223,000 69,000,000 **thousand metric tons Gold 150 3,000 56,000 **metric tons Copper ​ 1,780 18,700 720,000 **thousand metric tons In some cases, the consumption data will be for “apparent consumption”, which is the best estimate that they can make (since production data are not available for all countries). Apparent consumption is defined as the sum of (domestic production plus imports) minus exports. Also, be sure to note the units (e.g. pounds, tons (2000 pounds), tonnes (metric tons, about 2240 pounds), grams, etc.) that are used for each commodity. All comparisons should be in the same units. These numbers do not mean much unless we put them into perspective. For instance, how many tonnes of each of these do ​you​ account for? To determine this, we will assume that you are an average U.S. citizen and can be represented by a ​ ​ per capita figure. Please determine per capita U.S. and world consumption for each of these commodities (and put them into the blanks in the table on the next page). Assume that all of the material that is produced in a year is consumed in the same year, which is usually reasonable. Please enter your answers directly on this MS Word document. Save the document as LastName_FirstName.doc Per Capita U.S. Consumption Per Capita World Consumption Ratio of U.S. to World Per Capita Consumption Iron Ore .00000012 mmt .0000004523 mmt .265310 Salt .00021419 tmt .0000371977 tmt 5.75815 Phosphate .00008722 tmt .0000303849 tmt 2.87050 Gold .00000046 mt .0000004087 mt 1.12551 Copper .00000549 tmt .00000024253 tmt 22.6363 1) For today’s population of the U.S., you can use the following source http://www.census.gov/popclock/​. 2) For information on world population, use the same census clock http://www.census.gov/popclock/​. Enter your results in the second column of the table above. 3) Now, calculate the ratio between U.S. per capita consumption and world consumption (i.e. U.S./world) and put that in the final column in the table at the top of this page. 4) What would ​world production​ for each these commodities have to be if the rest of the world were to increase its per capita consumption level to that of the United States? World Production Needed if World Per Capita Consumption Equals that in U.S. Iron Ore .000002352 mmt Salt .04198124 tmt Phosphate .01709512 tmt Gold .000009016 mt Copper .00107604 tmt Please enter your answers directly on this MS Word document. Save the document as LastName_FirstName.doc 5) Compare this number to world reserves. Is there enough to satisfy the rest of the world? How long would it last? Iron Ore .00000000008078 years per capita Salt Inexhaustible amount of salt in the ocean Phosphate 4,036,239,582 years per capita Gold 6,211,180,124 years per capita Copper 669,120,107 years per capita 6) Use the internet to find a prediction of world population for the year 2050. What would world consumption have to be for each commodity if per capita consumption was at present (2015) U.S. rates? How does this compare to presently known world reserves? Calculate how long the reserves will last. 9.7 billion estimated world population in 2050 Iron Ore­ 1,164 mmt ­­world reserve 190,000 mmt Salt­ 20,776,430 tmt ­­world reserve endless Phosphate­ 846,034 tmt ­­world reserve 69,000,000 tmt Gold­ 4,462 mt ­­world reserve 56,000 mt Copper­ 53,253 tmt ­­world reserve 720,000 tmt Iron Ore­163.23 years Salt­N/A Phosphate­81.55 years Gold­12.55 years Copper­13.52 years 7) Now, I want you to assess domestic versus international dependence for each of these natural resources. Go back to the Mineral Commodity Summary for each of the resources in the Table above. For iron ore, use the data for steel production instead of iron ore. This provides a more accurate picture of the actual end use of iron ore. Net Import Reliance Iron Ore 25 mmt Salt 32 tmt Phosphate 4 tmt Gold N/A Copper 36 tmt Please enter your answers directly on this MS Word document. Save the document as LastName_FirstName.doc Now that you have these data, describe how the U.S. will meet future consumption. Theoretically, the rest of the world will not be using the same amount of mineral resources per capita as the United States. In order to meet future consumption the United States will need to increase the import of natural resources. You can see in the mineral commodity summaries that the net import reliance has gone up for most of the resources listed between 2012 and 2015. 8) Finally, the metal copper is the product of “sulfide mining”. Use the internet to make a list of the ten things that are made possible by using copper, and then describe what would happen to the list if sulfide mining were completely banned worldwide. 1. Piping, nuts and bolts 2. Coin money 3. Spark resistant material in explosive areas 4. Circuit boards for computers 5. Power cables 6. Poisons and pesticides 7. Door knobs 8. Lighting fixtures 9. Air conditioning tube 10. Electrical wire in motors ...
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