PS263 - Chapter 3 - Chapter 3 Anatomy and Research Methods...

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Chapter 3: Anatomy and Research Methods ` Module 3.1: Structure of the Vertebrate Nervous System Terminology to Describe the Nervous System Vertebrate nervous system o Central nervous system (CNS) – the brain and the spinal cord Spinal cord Midbrain Forebrain o Peripheral nervous system (PNS) – connects the brain and spinal cord to the rest of the body Somatic nervous system – consists of the axons conveying messages form the sense organs to the CNS and form the CNS to the muscles Autonomic nervous system – controls the heart, intestines, and other organs Anatomical Terms Referring to Directions Dorsal – toward the back, away form the ventral (stomach) side. The top of the brain is considered dorsal because it has that position in four-legged animals Ventral (ventriloquist = “stomach talker”) – toward the stomach , away form the dorsal (back) side o The dorsal-ventral axis of the human brain is at a right angle to the dorsal-ventral axis of the spinel cord
Anterior – toward the front end Posterior – toward the rear end Superior – above another part Inferior – below another part Lateral – toward the side, away from the midline Proximal – located close (approximate) to the point of origin or attachment Distal – located more distant form the point of origin or attachment Ipsilateral – on the same side of the body Contralateral – on the opposite side of the body The three ways of taking a plane through the brain o Horizontal plane – a plane that shows brain structures as seen form above o Sagittal plane – a plane that shows brain structures as seen from the side o Coronal plane – a plane that shows brain structures as seen form the front Terms Referring to Parts o the Nervous System Lamina – a row or layer of cell bodies separated form other cell bodies by a layer of axons and dendrites Column – a set of cells perpendicular to the surface of the cortex, with similar properties Tract – a set of axons within the CNS, also know as a projections ; if axons extend from cell bodies in structure A to synapses into B, we say that the fibers “project” from A onto B Nerve – a set of axons within in the periphery, either form the CNS to a muscle or gland or from a sensory organ to the CNS Nucleus – a cluster of neuron cell bodies within the CNS Ganglion – A cluster of neuron cell bodies, usually outside the CNS (as in the sympathetic nervous system) Gyrus (pl.: gyri ) – a protuberance (bulges) on the surface of the brain Sulcus (pl.: sulci ) – a fold or groove that separates one gyrus form another Fissure – a long, deep sulcus The Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) ANS consists of neurons that receive information from and send commands to the heart, intestines, and other organs Have two parts: o Sympathetic nervous system – network of nerves that prepare the organs for vigorous activity,

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