Philosophy review for Midterm

Philosophy review for Midterm - Philosophy review for...

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Philosophy review for Midterm Introduction - Be aware of the prior philosophical history in the west such as the Classical Greek Philosophy, Classical Roman Philosophy, and Early Christian Philosophers in Rome, European ‘Dark Ages’, Rise of Medieval Philosophy, and Scholastic Age of Philosophy. - At this time there is no distinction between science and philosophy both were members of the communities and intellectual life - Cartesian Cortesan - Increasingly upset between mathematical certainty and philosophical uncertainty - Back then philosophy was entirely a new thing that was completely REVOLUTIONARY - Philosophy means “ search for truth” collective research or the Objective truth - Its not just about one individual others might think differently - Anything can be challenged philosophically with reason and evidence - Reforming philosophy so that it can have the same degree of certainty The 17 century was the rise of Modern Philosophy Francis Bacon “ Novum Organum” and Rene Descartes “Meditations” were one of the first two major philosophers. They both wanted to recognize the inadequacy in philosophy Both wanted to reject what everyday way authorities were traditionally thinking. They both wanted to build the new foundations of philosophy Also wanted to use new discoveries in the sciences to correct past assumptions. Bacon: he relies on observation of particular things to establish slow and gradual certainties. - Distrusted deductive logic because it might be according to false premises - He prefers to make hypothesis slowly and cautiously to avoid errors - Try to avoid error by looking for counter arguments and helping correct the senses with instruments Class notes on Bacon: Bacon was a great promoter of experimental sciences and comings to its own! - “ The power of observation” - Associated with the beginning of the technological impulse - Our lives dominated by technology. Bacon was really the first Western Philosophers - To him knowledge is power and means of controlling nature - Science is not a means of understanding nature - Science serves human nature - Bacon was the originator - Using science and technology by controlling nature…the whole idea is about control
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- “Nature has all the power “ all the energy we live off of comes from nature - Therefore the more we understand nature the more we can make it serve us. We are currently controlling nature in every single way - Master and synthesize some chemicals and substances - We are even pushing for further control Aristotle developed a formal system of deductive “logic” a formal system for moving from evidence to conclusion Deductive (logic) Bacon criticizes (mathematics is a deductive science) Induction (logic) Bacon favors Aristotelian- syllogisms arguments with form that lead deductively to conclusions Ex. All men are mortal Assume they are true 100% confident and certain Premises. Socrates is a man Conslusion. Therefore, Socrates is mortal Syllogism: All A’s are B. C is A…. C is B - Reason from sensory! New way of thinking which emphasizes on deductive logic
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