HistoryoftheUnitedStates - Elijah Whyte The European Age of...

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Elijah WhyteThe European Age of DiscoveryI. A Snapshot of Europe, c.1450A.1400-1600 AD is a period where Europeans began moving beyond the borders inEurope, into the Atlantic ocean. They were aware of many areas of the earth, but notbeyond the Atlantic Ocean. Europeans discovered many island chains, and movedfurther down the coast of West Africa until they make it to two continents. It eventuallyled them to indigenous people of Africa, Asia, and etc.B.Why was there this hunger for Europeans to explore more? The 1300s were the MiddleAges. Two of the most powerful nations during this time, titled the Hundred Years war,was where France and England. It impacted all of Europe, and within the Middle Ages,the temperature dipped. The “little ice age” caused famine, due to crops not being able togrow from cold weather. They were desperate in search for food. Then, an outbreak goesout, called the “black death,” a disease originated from caravans through trade, andspreaded quickly. Aboutperished in Europe because of this disease. This also causedtrade to dwindle; goods sold less.C.The Ottoman Empire began expanding, and pushed into Europe. This threat wereislamic turks (Muslim), so European Christians feared.D.Monarchies, or single rulers such as kings. The hierarchy functions from kings, to nobles,to peasants. Kings have judicial order, armies, and etc. There are four monarchies thatwere most powerful in this section. England, France, Spain and Portugal are the cream ofthe crop during this age of discovery. There are also smaller nation/states that have arepublican government (Not a single ruler.) Italy was broken up initially, and they comeout from Venice. Italian merchants became extremely wealthy. Luxury goods wereprduced in Asia, gold found in Africa, and these goods are brought in by these merchantsthrough on-land caravans. They had a great deal of power due to their wealth.E.These states are constantly competing. France tries to get the upper hand on England,England to Asia, so on and so forth. This competition was more fierce by age ofdiscovery, since Europe was bouncing out of all of those tragic events. It was on the vergeof becoming the most powerful continent on earth.II. Motivations for Overseas ExpansionA.Why do Europeans want to expand?a.Trade. There was wealth to be made through commercial trade. They had longtrade routes through Asia. Spices, gold, etc. The mediterranean was the hub forall trade systems. Beginning in the 14th Century, it became difficult… TheOttoman Empire continued to expand from Turkey outwards, and takes all overthe Holy Land and push into Southeastern Europe. They will tax the Europeansto go through their trade routes since they’re observing. So the Europeansattempt to find alternate routes. It eventually leads them to aim west rather than
the eastern mediterranean. But once trade is oriented elsewhere, Italy cannottrade as easily. Europe’s supply of gold and silver was running out, so they beginlooking for access to precious metals.

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Term
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Michael Dudley Robinson

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