Week 08-25 - A brief history of Molecular Biology Outline...

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A brief history of Molecular Biology Reading assignments: Molecular Biology of the Gene (Watson, 6th ed) chapter 1, chapter 2, page 19-28. Outline Mendelian genetics Chromosomal theory of heredity The nature of gene
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Definitions: gene : the basic biological unit of heredity. allele : different versions of the same gene. genotype : an individual’s genetic composition. phenotype : an individual’s visible trait. homozygous : a genotype that has an identical pair of alleles. heterozygous : a genotype that has two different alleles for the gene.
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Mendel’s breeding experiments 34 true-breeding strains >21,000 hybrid plants Results published in 1865.
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Mendel’s 1st law:independent segregation (of alleles)
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Mendel’s 1st Law: Independent Segregation (of alleles) individual’s phenotypes were determined by a pair of “particulate factors” (alleles) Alleles may be dominant (the trait seen in F1) or recessive (the trait not seen in F1). Individual alleles segregate independently into gametes. Each gamete receives one allele from each pair.
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Mendel’s 1st law does not require one allele to be dominant For many alleles, the heterozygous phenotype is different from both homozygous phenotypes. The resulting phenotype may be intermediate to the homozygous. This is incomplete dominance .
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Mendel’s 2nd Law: Independent Assortment (of genes)
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Mendel’s 2nd Law: Independent Assortment (of genes) Different genes independently sort into gametes. Each gamete receives one allele of each gene.
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The Chromosomal Theory of Inheritance Walter Sutton, 1903 “many points were discovered which strongly indicate that the position of the bivalent chromosomes in the equatorial plate of the reducing division is purely a matter of chance—that is, that any chromosome pair may lie with maternal or paternal chromatid indifferently toward either pole irrespective if the positions of other pairs, --and hence that a large number of different combinations of maternal and paternal chromosomes are possible in the mature germ-products of the individual”
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