MSJ2e_Ch17_ISM2_June26_p758

MSJ2e_Ch17_ISM2_June26_p758 - Chapter 17: Additional...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 17: Additional Aqueous Equilibria Acid Rain 47. The pH in rain always contains some dissolved CO 2 from the air. As described in Section 17.3, atmospheric carbon dioxide dissolves and reacts with rainwater to form a solution of weak carbonic acid. Rainwater in equilibrium with dissolved CO 2 has a pH of 5.6. Any water less acidic than this, even if it is acidic by the chemical definition, is still not called “acid rain.” 48 . Two oxides that are key producers of acid rain are NO 2 and SO 3 . NO 2 reacts with water in the air to make nitric acid and nitrous acid: 2 NO 2 (g) + H 2 O(g) HNO 3 (g) + HNO 2 (g) SO 2 reacts with oxygen in the air to make SO 3 and SO 3 reacts water in the air to make sulfuric acid: 2 SO 2 (g) + O 2 (g) 2 SO 3 (g) SO 3 (g) + H 2 O(g) H 2 SO 4 (g) 49. If the pH of a sample of acid rain is 1.5, then the [H + ] = [H 3 O + ] = 10 –pH = 10 –1.5 = 0.03 M 50 . Limestone is made of calcium carbonate. The anion of this compound is a base and reacts with acid in rainwater to neutralize it by a gas-forming exchange reaction (Section 5.2): CaCO 3 (s) + 2 H + (aq) Ca 2+ (aq) + CO 2 (g) + H 2 O( ) Solubility Product 51. (a) PbCO 3 (s) Pb 2+ (aq) + CO 3 2– (aq) K sp = [Pb 2+ ][CO 3 2– ] (b) Ni(OH) 2 (s) Ni 2+ (aq) + 2 OH – (aq) K sp = [Ni 2+ ][OH – ] 2 (c) Sr 3 (PO 4 ) 2 (s) 3 Sr 2+ (aq) + 2 PO 4 3– (aq) K sp = [Sr 2+ ] 3 [PO 4 3– ] 2 (d) Hg 2 SO 4 (s) Hg 2 2+ (aq) + SO 4 2– (aq) K sp = [Hg 2 2+ ][SO 4 2– ] 52 . (a) FeCO 3 (s) Fe 2+ (aq) + CO 3 2– (aq) K sp = [Fe 2+ ][CO 3 2– ] (b) Ag 2 SO 4 (s) 2 Ag + (aq) + SO 4 2– (aq) K sp = [Ag + ] 2 [SO 4 2– ] (c) Ca 3 (PO 4 ) 2 (s) 3 Ca 2+ (aq) + 2 PO 4 3– (aq) K sp = [Ca 2+ ] 3 [PO 4 3– ] 2 (d) Mn(OH) 2 (s) Mn 2+ (aq) + 2 OH – (aq) K sp = [Mn 2+ ][OH – ] 2 53. Adapt the method developed in Problem-Solving Example 17.10. Write the chemical equation and the equilibrium expression for the dissociation of the solute: Ag 3 AsO 4 (s) 3 Ag + (aq) + AsO 4 3– (aq) K sp = [Ag + ] 3 [AsO 4 3– ] At equilibrium, the moles of solid that dissolve per liter are: 8.5 10-6 γ Αγ 3 ΑσΟ 4 1 μΛ 1 μολ Αγ 3 ΑσΟ 4 462.5238 γ Αγ 3 ΑσΟ 4 1000 μΛ 1 Λ = 1.8 × 10 –5 M The stoichiometry of the equation shows that the arsenate ion concentration is the identical to the number of moles of solid that dissolve per liter, 1.8 × 10 –5 M, and the silver ion concentration is three times that value, 3 × (1.8 × 10 –5 M) = 5.4 × 10 –5 M. 224 Chapter 17: Additional Aqueous Equilibria K sp = (5.4 × 10 –5 ) 3 (1.8 × 10 –5 ) = 3.0 × 10 –18 54 . Adapt the method developed in Problem-Solving Example 17.10. Write the chemical equation and the equilibrium expression for the dissociation of the solute: CaSO 4 (s) Ca 2+ (aq) + SO 4 3– (aq) K sp = [Ca 2+ ][SO 4 2– ] At equilibrium, the moles of solid that dissolve per liter is: 2.03 γ ΧαΣΟ 4 1 Λ 1 μολ ΧαΣΟ 4 136.14 γ ΧαΣΟ 4 = 0.0149 M The stoichiometry of the equation shows that the concentrations of calcium ion and sulfate ion are both...
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This note was uploaded on 09/10/2008 for the course CHE 131 taught by Professor Kerber during the Spring '08 term at SUNY Stony Brook.

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MSJ2e_Ch17_ISM2_June26_p758 - Chapter 17: Additional...

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