MSJ2e_Ch22_ISM

MSJ2e_Ch22_ISM - 874 Chapter 22: Chemistry of Selected...

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Chapter 22: Chemistry of Selected Transition Elements and Coordination Compounds 874 Chapter 22: Chemistry of Selected Transition Elements and Coordination Compounds Questions for Review and Thought Review Questions 1. The primary reducing agent in the production of iron metal from its ores is carbon monoxide, as discussed in Section 22.2 shown in Figure 22.5. Fe 2 O 3 (s) + 3 CO(g) 2 Fe(s) + 3 CO 2 (g) 2. NOTE: Nothing in the discussion in Section 22.2 describes the use of lime, Ca(OH) 2 , in the blast furnace reduction of iron ore. Limestone, CaCO 3 , is added to remove silica-containing impurities in the ore. It is conceivable that the very basic lime salt might be used to remove CO 2 , a greenhouse gas, from the flue exhaust before it is able to enter the atmosphere. However, that does not make it necessary to the production process. 3. The only difference between pig iron and cast iron is the shape. Molten pig iron is poured into molds of desired shape to make cast iron. 4. (a) Air is used to provide the oxidizing agent, O 2 (g), used to convert carbon into carbon monoxide. (b) Limestone, CaCO 3 , is added to remove silica-containing impurities in the ore. (c) Coke is the source of carbon for making carbon monoxide, the primary reducing agent in the reduction of the iron ores. 5. (a) Blast furnace is used in the production of iron metal from its ores. (b) Basic oxygen process is used for making steel from impure iron. (c) Roasting is used to produce copper metal from its ores. 6. Common uses for each metal are mentioned in Section 22.2 - 22.5: Metal Cr Cu Fe Au Ag Use coating for stainless steel wires and coins steel microelectronics and decorative jewelry photographic chemicals, coins, and decorative jewelry 7. Three metals found “free” (uncombined with other elements) are copper, silver, and gold as mentioned at the beginning of Section 22.3 and 22.4. 8. There is an unexpected decrease in atomic radii that offsets the expected size increase between the Period 3 transition metals and the Period 4 transition metals. The lanthanide series of elements intervenes between barium, the Period 6 Group 2A element, and the next Period 6 Group 3B element. The effective nuclear charge experienced by the outer electrons in the Period 3 transition metals increases because the atomic number jumps up by 14 with no more core electrons being present to shield that charge. Thus, the atoms are smaller than expected. (Refer to the end of Section 22.1 and Section 7.8 for more details.) 9. Figure 22.3 shows the trends. Across most of the Period 4 transition series, the size decreases, though the sizes of chromium through nickel are quite similar (128 - 124 pm). The decline in atomic size reverses and begins an increase at copper.
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Chapter 22: Chemistry of Selected Transition Elements and Coordination Compounds 875 10. A ligand must have one or more atoms with lone pairs of electrons that can form coordinate covalent bonds.
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This note was uploaded on 09/10/2008 for the course CHE 131 taught by Professor Kerber during the Spring '08 term at SUNY Stony Brook.

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MSJ2e_Ch22_ISM - 874 Chapter 22: Chemistry of Selected...

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