Period 7 Study Guide
Key Concept 7.1: Growth expanded opportunity, while economic instability led to new eforts to reForm
U.S. society and its economic system.
1. The United States con±nued its transi±on From a rural, agricultural economy to an urban, industrial
economy led by large companies.
A) New technologies and manuFacturing techniques helped Focus the U.S. economy on the produc±on oF
consumer goods, contribu±ng to improved standards oF living, greater personal mobility, and be²er
large businesses dominate the U.S. economy
B) By 1920, a majority oF the U.S. popula±on lived in urban centers, which ofered new economic
opportuni±es For women, interna±onal migrants, and internal migrants.
C) Episodes oF credit and market instability in the early 20th century, in par±cular the Great Depression,
led to calls For a stronger ³nancial regulatory system.
2. In the Progressive Era (beginning with Teddy R) oF the early 20th century, Progressives responded to
poli±cal corrup±on, economic instability, and social concerns by calling For greater government ac±on
and other poli±cal and social measures.
A) Some Progressive Era journalists (muckrakers) a²acked what they saw as poli±cal corrup±on, social
injus±ce, and economic inequality, while reFormers, o´en From the middle and upper classes and
including many women, worked to efect social changes in ci±es and among immigrant popula±ons.
meat packing; Ida Tarbell
standard oil; Jacob Riis
Fought For minimum wage, eight-hour day, children’s’ rights, & NAACP
B) On the na±onal level, Progressives sought Federal legisla±on that they believed would efec±vely
regulate the economy, expand democracy, and generate moral reForm. Progressive amendments to the
Cons±tu±on dealt with issues such as prohibi±on and woman sufrage.
Teddy R’s progressive program to be Fair to all interests: business, labor,
Na±onal Securi±es Company (1904)
Railroad monopoly dissolved by Teddy R using the
previously inefec±ve Sherman An±trust Act oF 1890
Pure µood & Drug Act (1906)
Illegal to sell impure/improperly labeled Food/drugs
Meat Inspec±on Act (1906)
Underwood Tarif (1913)
Substan±ally reduced tarifs and made up lost revenue w/
graduated income tax
µederal Reserve Act (1913)
Established system oF 12 Federal banks regula±ng money
Clayton An±trust Act (1914)
Monopolies are illegal; Labor unions/µarmers’
organiza±ons were exempt From the law
µederal Trade Commission (1914)
Appointed by president to inves±gate illegal
: Federal income tax; 17
: direct elec±on oF US senators; 18
: women’s sufrage