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Key Concept 5.1: The United States became more connected with the world, pursued an expansionist foreign policy in the Western Hemisphere, and emerged as the destination for many migrants from other countries. Election of 1840: William Henry Harrison (Whig) wins Dies 32 days after taking office VP John Tyler (former Democrat) becomes President >Tyler still holds many Democratic beliefs Starts to block Whig party goals (led by Henry Clay and Daniel Webster) Attempts to annex Texas (defeated by Congress) I. Manifest Destiny:Popular enthusiasm for U.S. expansion (built on belief of white superiority), bolstered by economic and security interests, resulted in the acquisition of new territories, substantial migration westward, and new overseas initiatives. A) The desire for access to natural and mineral resources and the hope of many settlers for economic opportunities or religious refuge led to an increased migration to and settlement in the West. B) Advocates of annexing western lands argued that Manifest Destiny and the superiority of American institutions compelled the United States to expand its borders westward to the Pacific Ocean. Election of 1844: James Polk (Democrat) Texas Annexed! >Goals: Expansion into Oregon & Acquisition of CA C) The U.S. added large territories in the West through victory in the Mexican–American War and diplomatic negotiations (Louisiana Purchase), raising questions about the status of slavery, American Indians, and Mexicans in the newly acquired lands. D) Westward migration was boosted during and after the Civil War by the passage of new legislation promoting Western transportation and economic development. E) U.S. interest in expanding trade led to economic, diplomatic, and cultural initiatives to create more ties with Asia. II. In the 1840s and 1850s, Americans continued to debate questions about rights and citizenship for various groups of U.S. inhabitants. A) Substantial numbers of international migrants continued to arrive in the United States from Europe and Asia, mainly from Ireland and Germany, often settling in ethnic communities where they could preserve elements of their languages and customs. B) A strongly anti-Catholic nativist movement arose that was aimed at limiting new immigrants’ political power and cultural influence. C) U.S. government interaction and conflict with Mexican Americans and American Indians increased in regions newly taken from American Indians and Mexico, altering these groups’ economic self-sufficiency and cultures Key Concept 5.2: Intensified by expansion and deepening regional divisions, debates over slavery and other economic, cultural, and political issues led the nation into civil war. I. Ideological and economic differences over slavery produced an array of diverging responses from Americans in the North and the South.