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Unformatted text preview: USA Immigration
The USA is a country of immigrants from around the world Factors for Migration Push and Pull Famine, starvation, drought Civil unrest, war Political persecution Religious persecution Economic crises Employment opportunities Freedom from political and/or religious persecution Positive Sociopolitical climate re: immigration Economic conditions Immigration Policy
Objectives and procedures for entry and staying in USA territory of foreign nationals Selected Immigration Policies Alien Act (up to
1800s) Chinese Exclusionary Act (1882-1892) The National Origin Act (19241965) The Immigration and Naturalization Act (1965-today) The Reform of the INA 1965 (1986 present) Immigration Policies Consequences Racial/ethnic diversity Brain drain Population growth Two-Tier immigration The Alien Act (up to 1921) Residence requirements of legal standing for 6 years Political Asylum Exclusively for Whites Excluded Native American tribes, Africans, and Chinese and other Asians later on The Alien Act Early settlers: English, Norse, German, Danish, Scottish and French; followed by Irish Catholics First immigration wave began in 1820s and ended in 1890s Conflict among ethnic groups grew as diversity expanded. Nativism v Xenophobia Alien Act Worker organizations in the Northeast, expansion to the West, need for cheap labor for agricultural and mercantile capitalism growth fostered demand for more workers Beginning of immigration from the Asian countries, mainly China. Chinese came to fill in the economic gaps that Irish, Blacks, and Mexicans, for various reasons could not or were not allowed to work Alien Act Immigration from China began in 1850 Chinese entry was granted on solely economic basis rather than as an immigration goal per se. Chinese were labeled "nonWhite" thus excluded from the possibility of residence. Their preference was due to their labor power at a lower cost than the wages of current workers Many Chinese came with the idea of making money and return to their homeland = "Birds of Passage" or Sojourners Many did return to China (60%). Since the large proportion were poor peasants they had to spend time working in the USA until their debt incurred by their immigration was completely paid back (7 or more years). Thus many stayed and send payments to their village lenders and family The Chinese Exclusionary Act (18821892) As the economy declined, Chinese workers became targets of discontent The "Yellow Peril" ideology dictated isolation of and from, Chinese people Sinophobia = Fear of Chinese AntiChinese laws passed in California Chinese Exclusionary Act The policy denied Chinese workers in the USA to own property, job allocation, reunification with family, and geographical mobility The policy prohibited entry of Chinese workers for 10 years; it was expanded to 1912 The restriction was due to "job scarcity" The Chinese Exclusionary Act While Chinese workers in the USA were denied jobs and entry as potential immigrants due to "job scarcity," the Second immigrant wave came from Southern Europe. It began in 1870s, reached its peak in the late 1890s, and continued until 1920. The Alien Act About 26 million immigrants from Southern Europe came during 18711920 to meet the demand for industry workers Many of the new immigrants came as sojourners, hoping to return to their homeland after making enough money The Alien Act Population diversity (circa 1920s) Native Americans and immigrants from: England, Germany, Scotland, Ireland, Sweden, France, Africa, Denmark, Spain, Mexico, Canada, China, Japan, Philippines, Korea, India, Turkey, Syria, Lebanon, Belgium, Norway, Holland, , Armenia, Greece, Italy, Portugal, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, Poland, Slovenia, Austria, Switzerland, Latvia, Lithuania, Russia, Ukraine, Serbia, Croatia, Montenegro, and Bulgaria. The National Origins Quota Act (19211965)
Immigration quota = 3% of any nationality living in the USA The National Origins Quota Act (19211965) Immigration declined significantly in the 1920s The search for the best breed of Americans was the goal of the "eugenic movement" The policy halted immigration from Asia completely National Origins Act Built in preference given to Northern and Western Europeans The need for labor was now supplied by Puerto Ricans and Mexicans By 1930s one of three Americans was foreign born or the child of immigrant parents The Immigration and Naturalization Act (1965present) Ended The National Origins Act Replaced preference for place of birth with individual worth or family reunification Increased population and its diversity Brain drain Political Asylum Amnesty to undocumented immigrants Reform to the 1965 INS Act (1986 present) who could prove continuous stay in USA, without criminal records, and good standing Made illegal hiring illegal workers Conspiracy to commit the crime or commission of the crime has a maximum fine of $10,000 or 5 years in prison (18 USCS 371) 1986 INA Reform Transference of INS from State Department to Homeland Security Twotier immigration 10.4% of total population is foreign born Immigration Policies Characteristics Groups Preference Racism and Ethnocentrism Protection of American Economy Political Asylum ...
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- Spring '08