236 textbook notes - Feb 19 2005 HA 236 Ch 2(14-24...

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Feb. 19, 2005 HA 236 Ch. 2 (14-24) Microbiology  is the study of tiny, usually single-celled organisms that can be seen only  with a microscope. -4 types of microorganisms can contaminate food and cause illness: bacteria (which  cause most food-borne illnesses), viruses, parasites, and fungi. BACTERIA: 1. Harmless 2. Beneficial 3. Undesirable- responsible for food spoilage 4. Disease-Causing/Pathogens- cause most food-borne illnesses  the only way to protect food against pathogenic bacteria is by proper hygiene  and sanitary food handling and storage techniques. -bacteria multiply by splitting in half what bacteria needs for growth: -food—with protein -moisture—in order to absorb food -temperature—they grow best at warm temperatures ( DANGER ZONE: b/t 41 -140 ) -acidity/alkalinity—they like a neutral environment (not too acidic/not too  alkaline) -air—most require oxygen to grow= aerobic. Some don’t: i.e. metal cans  (botulism) -time—they need time to adjust to their environment (the  LAG PHASE - approx. 1  hr.) POTENTIALLY HAZARDOUS FOOD: -from animals -from plants that has been cooked (i.e. pasta, rice) -raw seed sprouts -sliced melons -garlic/oil mixtures  NOT potentially hazardous: dehydrated foods, strongly acidic foods, comm. processed -bacteria move by: hands, utensils, other foods, coughs/sneezes, air, water, insects, mice 1
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Feb. 19, 2005 HA 236 -The most effective way to prevent bacterial growth is to keep foods below 41  or above   140 sanitize:  to kill disease-causing bacteria
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