Soc 140 Lec Dec 4 - Soc 140 Lec Dec. 4, 2007 Socialist...

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Soc 140 Lec Dec. 4, 2007 Socialist States Nicaragua - late 1980s context - Prelude to 1990 Elections - 1990-2006 - 2006 and Beyond Venezuela - Similarities/Differences Inflation 1980-84 – 32% 1986 – 747% 1987 – 1,346% 1988 – 33,603% 1989 – 1,690% Nicaragua – mid-1980s - Popular participation was seriously undercut by the many difficulties arising in daily life. They were caused by both the economic crisis as well as the war. - By the mid-1980s, daily life had become a nightmare. - Given the deepening economic crisis and the war, which meant that foreign exchange earnings were more and more scarce. Production was affected in certain parts of the country. Production of key staple items, corn, beans, and rice were hard hit. These increasingly limit foreign exchange earnings meant increasing shortages from food items to items that were produced locally whose production was affected by the war or because they could no longer be imported. What these shortages meant, more and more of people’s daily lives were taken up by simply trying to put food on the table. The shortages ranged from eggs, to milk, to bread to toothpaste, deodorant, everything you can think of. Also had an impact on mass transportation (parts were difficult to come by). Daily life became difficult. - This translated into: people were more and more worn out (whether or not they had family members who had fight in the war). They also had less time to participate in the many kinds of organizations that were there to ensure there position in government policy making. The whole area of government popular participation became more and more problematic. - As a result of daily life become more and more difficult, they were unable to participate in things that they once did. 1987 - Esquipulas peace accords – the peace process became regional in scope. - Supposed to bring peace to all of central America. Within Nicaragua, peace negotiations were initiated between the Nicaraguan government and the contra in 1988, but the war did not come to and end. (the peace didn’t come until mid 1990) - The signing of the peace accords meant that the government could start to shift its focus, the war was clearly starting to move in the direction of winding down, the gov’t could
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shift its focus to the economy. (And it needed to because the economy was out of control). - In response to the out of control economic situation, the gov’t implemented an economic reform in 1988. - It initiated with a complete change of currency. Everyone in the country had 3 days to go in and exchange their currency. The currency was devalued. (Huge increase in inflation that year.) - (One of the additional elements behind the currency change was also to prevent members of the contra from going in to exchange their currencies. Cut them out of having the value of the currency that they were holding at the time.) - Harsh economic reform. Subsidies were cut at this time (food and transportation). There
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This note was uploaded on 09/11/2008 for the course SOC 140 taught by Professor Enriquez during the Fall '07 term at University of California, Berkeley.

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Soc 140 Lec Dec 4 - Soc 140 Lec Dec. 4, 2007 Socialist...

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