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Soc 140 Lec oct 11

Soc 140 Lec oct 11 - Soc 140 Lec Oct 11 2007 Midterm on the...

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Soc 140 Lec. Oct. 11, 2007 Midterm - on the first question, discuss all of the three perspectives, but don’t have to discuss every theorist that we looked at (it’s fine if you look at a few of them, not all of them) but must cover all of the perspectives - Modernization theory – body of that that emerged mostly in thte US in the Post WWII period. Sought to explain why certain parts of the world (the third world) were less developed and more impoverished than the first world. Most of the writings within this tradition came from the US and its central arguments were several. o One of them was that there is only one path to development and that is the path that was pursued by the US and Western Europe. (One model for development). o A second key argument was that, what had occurred in the third world to create such a different situation there was that these countries in the third world were simply further behind the developed world on the path to development. (referring to the development of capitalism) o Third, what those in the third world need to do to get there (where we are) is, depending on the discipline the person is coming out of, infusions of capital (economists argue this) from the developed world or certain cultural (sociologists argue this) or psychological (psychologists argue this) elements that would be spread there through cultural diffusion. o Cultural characteristics: positive attitude towards entrepreneurship, a willingness to move towards __, prioritizing ___ over _family?_, orientation towards time, o psychological characteristics: N-achievement, need to achieve, perceived to be less in less developed countries. o There has been a reaction to that perspective, Underdevelopment theory. Argues that it originated in Latin America and there was not just one path to development and what exists in Latin America is under development, (flipside of development). o What has caused this underdevelopment has been precisely what modernization theorists argued in favor of, interaction with developed countries. In fact the developed world has only been interested in Latin America (Asia, third world, etc.) for the degree to which it can exploit it (cheap labor, cheap national resources, etc.) o ISI – Import Substitution Industrialization – It was the strategy of industrialization that was utilized to a large degree in Latin America and the way in which it was
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