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Unformatted text preview: Psychology 100 Lecture 9 - Intelligence November 5, 2007 Chapter 10 I. Intelligence
A. Defined - Can We Define Intelligence? - capacity for understanding, retention, and comprehension = the ability to solve problems in an ever-changing environment B. Theories - Galton - believed you can measure intelligence by "fitness" - cousin of Darwin - believed males are more intelligent than females because of grip strength - Hierarchical Model - Fluid Intelligence = ability to solve problems, reason, and remember in ways relatively uninfluenced by experience (genetic intelligence) - Crystal Intelligence = acquired intelligence - Cognitive Approach 1.) Focus is on analyzing internal mental processes 2.) Measure speed, agility to attend to things, reaction times, and number of errors 3.) Lawyer is to client as doctor is to ______________ 4.) Very influential 5.) All tests are timed and error rates are calculated - Gardners Theory of Multiple Intelligences - musical = gifted musicians - bodily kinesthetic = athletes - logical mathematical = scientists - linguistics = writers - spatial = those with good navigational skills - interpersonal = infers on moods - intrapersonal = insight into own feelings - naturalist = ability to observe\interact with diverse species II. Measuring Individual Differences
A. Components of a Good Test - Reliability = consistency of test results (memory test) - Validity = how well a test measures what its supposed to (math, probability) - Standardization = when the testing, scoring, and interpretation procedures are kept the same B. Types of Tests - Achievement Tests = measure what you know about a certain subject - Aptitude Test = measures ability to learn\acquire knowledge in a certain subject (potential) C. Intelligence Quotient - developed as a test to identify "dull" kids in France - later used as a major intelligence test - other people have modified the test over time - IQ = (MA\CA) x 100 - 96% of all people fall between 70-130 - below 70 = retarded - above 130 = gifted D. Validity of Intelligence Testing 1.) Ratio means different things at different ages 2.) Fails to provide a broad index of intelligence (think Gardner) 3.) Culturally Biased ...
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This note was uploaded on 09/11/2008 for the course PSY 100 taught by Professor Jarvinen during the Fall '07 term at Michigan Flint.
- Fall '07