5/2/2016 1 Psychological Disorders Autism Spectrum Disorders Revisions for the DSM-5 Autistic Disorder Asperger‘s Disorder Pervasive Developmental Disorder NOS Childhood Disintegrative Disorder Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASDs) Core Deficits of ASDs Autism Spectrum Disorders Social-Communication Deficits Repetitive Behaviors/ Restricted Interests Signs: Video following a child:
5/2/2016 2 Core Deficits of ASDs Social-Communication Deficits Core Deficits of ASDs Repetitive Behaviors/ Restricted Interests Autism Spectrum Disorder •Profound problems with the social world –Rarely approach others, may look through people –Problems in joint attention –Pay attention to different parts of faces; focus on mouth, not eyes •Theory of mind is impaired –Understanding that other people have different desires, beliefs, intentions, and emotions –Crucial for social interactions –Typically develops between 2½ and 5 years of age
5/2/2016 3 Associated Conditions •Sensory processing disorder •Intellectual disability (IQ < 70 is common, but def. not universal) •Epilepsy •Genetic disorders, such as Fragile X •Tuberous Sclerosis •Sleep disturbances •Gastrointestinal disturbances •Difficulties in motor coordination •Attention deficiencies and ADHD •Allergies •May excel visual skills, music, math, and art Autism Spectrum Disorders •Prevalence –1 in 68 children –1 in 42 males –1 in 189 females •~5 M for every 1 F •Autism Epidemic? –Change in diagnostic criteria –Increase in awareness –Diagnostic substitution What Causes Autism? •1940s - 1960s –“Refrigerator Moms”•Leo Kanner (scientific papers) •Bruno Bettelheim (mainstream media)
5/2/2016 4 Genetic Risk •Genetically influenced –Twin, family, and sibling studies indicate that the predisposition to have autism is 80-90% genetic •Multi-gene interactions, mutations/deletions, epigenetics –Siblings of children with ASD have a 15-20% risk of ASD (Zwaigenbaum, 2005) •If child #2 has ASD, this rate is even higher for the child #3, etc.
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- Spring '17
- Abnormal Psychology, autism spectrum, Autism Spectrum Disorders